Towards a Feminist Transport and Mobility Future: From One to Many Tracks

  • Tanja JoelssonEmail author
  • Christina Lindkvist Scholten


In most countries, transport is considered as the backbone of economic development and growth. The neoliberal discourse on growth, advocating market-oriented planning and decision-making, influences transport planning and policy. Transport planning and policy-making are political arenas where power relations, different interests and redistribution of resources are played out albeit these processes are seldom acknowledged and recognized. Women’s and men’s different mobilities have revealed the gendered conditions of everyday life, and new perspectives on transport have developed based on critical and feminist epistemologies. The concluding chapter of the collection furthers the debate by discussing these matters in relation to social inequality in transportation and mobility justice. It is in the tensions and public arguments revolving around transport planning investments that questions of justice and fairness in relation to power relations between different socio-economic groups, men and women, girls and boys, and corporate interests can be discussed and transformed. The way forward is to integrate the different conditions for different people depending on gender, age, race, ethnicity, class, sexuality, geographical location and so on into transport planning. The transition towards more sustainable and gender-equal transport systems is foremost a structural question. By stressing on the politicalness of transport policy and planning, we are countering individualistic paradigms where the responsibility of sustainability and equality is placed solely on the individual’s practices. This is also what the title alludes to, the ambition to move from one track to many tracks.


  1. Araya, D. (2015). Smart cities as democratic ecologies. London: Palgrave Macmillan Limited.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balkmar, D. (2012). On men and cars: An ethnographic study of gendered, risky and dangerous relations. PhD dissertation, Linköping University, Sweden.Google Scholar
  3. Barker, J., Kraftl, P., Horton, J., & Tucker, F. (2009). The road less travelled: New directions in children’s and young people’s mobility. Mobilities, 4(1), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berg, J., Levin, L., Abramsson, M., & Hagberg, J.-E. (2014). Mobility in the transition to retirement: The intertwining of transportation and everyday projects. Journal of Transport Geography, 38, 48–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Böhm, S., Jones, C., Land, C., & Paterson, M. (2006). Against automobility. Malden/Oxford/Carlton: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  6. Brown, B., Mackett, R., Gong, Y., Kitazawa, K., & Paskins, J. (2008). Gender differences in children’s pathways to independent mobility. Children’s Geographies, 6(4), 385–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Campbell, S. (1996). Green cities, growing cities, just cities? Urban planning and the contradictions of sustainable development. Journal of the American Planning Association, 62(3), 296–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Currie, G., & Stanley, J. (2007). No way to go: Transport and social disadvantage in Australian communities. Melbourne: Monash University ePress.Google Scholar
  9. Currie, G., Richardson, T., Smyth, P., Vella-Brodrick, D., Hine, J., Lucas, K., Stanley, J., Morris, J., Kinnear, R., & Stanley, J. (2009). Investigating links between transport disadvantage, social exclusion and well-being in Melbourne—Preliminary results. Transport Policy, 16(3), 97–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dobbs, L. (2007). Stuck in the slow lane: Reconceptualizing the links between gender, transport and employment. Gender, Work and Organization, 14(2), 85–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fainstein, S. S. (2014). The just city. International Journal of Urban Sciences, 18(1), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fraser, N. (2005). Reframing justice: In a globalizing world. New Left Review, 36, 69–88.Google Scholar
  13. Fyhri, A., Hjorthol, R., Mackett, R. L., Fotel, T. N., & Kyttä, M. (2011). Children’s active travel and independent mobility in four countries: Development, social contributing trends and measures. Transport Policy, 18(5), 703–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Geoffron, P. (2017). Smart cities and smart mobilities. In D. Attias (Ed.), The automobile revolution (pp. 87–98). Cham: Springer International Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gössling, S., & Cohen, S. (2014). Why sustainable transport policies will fail: EU climate policy in the light of transport taboos. Journal of Transport Geography, 39, 197–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hannam, K., Sheller, M., & Urry, J. (2006). Editorial: Mobilities, immobilities and moorings. Mobilities, 1(1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hanson, S. (2010). Gender and mobility: New approaches for informing sustainability. Gender, Place & Culture, 17(1), 5–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hanson, S., & Pratt, G. J. (1995). Gender, work, and space. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Hine, J., & Mitchell, F. (2001). Better for everyone? Travel experiences and transport exclusion. Urban Studies, 38(2), 319–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hull, A. (2008). Policy integration: What will it take to achieve more sustainable transport solutions in cities? Transport Policy, 15(2), 94–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Joelsson, T. (2013). Space and sensibility: Young men’s risk-taking with motor vehicles. PhD dissertation, Linköping University, Sweden.Google Scholar
  22. Joelsson, T. (forthcoming). Smart cities, smart mobilities and children. In T. P. Uteng, L. Levin, & H. R. Christensen (Eds.), Gendering smart mobilities. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Jones, P., & Lucas, K. (2012). The social consequences of transport decision-making: Clarifying concepts, synthesizing knowledge and assessing implications. Journal of Transport Geography, 21, 4–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kębłowski, W., & Bassens, D. (2018). “All transport problems are essentially mathematical”: The uneven resonance of academic transport and mobility knowledge in Brussels. Urban Geography, 39(3), 413–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kitchin, R. (2015). Making sense of smart cities: Addressing present shortcomings. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economics and Society, 8, 131–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Koskela, H. (1999). ‘Gendered exclusions’: Women’s fear of violence and changing relations to space. Geografiska Annaler, 81B(2), 111–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Law, R. (1999). Beyond ‘women and transport’: Towards new geographies of gender and daily mobility. Progress in Human Geography, 23(4), 567–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Levin, L. (2008). Äldre kvinnor: osynliga i statistiken men närvarande i trafiken [Elderly women: Invisible in statistics but present in the traffic]. In M. Brusman, T. Friberg, & J. Summerton (Eds.), Resande, planering, makt [Travel, planning, power]. Lund: Arkiv Förlag.Google Scholar
  29. Levin, L., & Faith-Ell, C. (2011). Women and men in public consultations of road-building projects. Transportation Research Board Conference Proceedings.Google Scholar
  30. Listerborn, C. (2002). Trygg stad. Diskurser om rädsla i forskning, policyutveckling och lokal praktik [Safe city: Discourses on women’s fear in research, policy development and local practices]. PhD dissertation, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.Google Scholar
  31. Loukaitou-Sideri, A. (2014). Fear and safety in transit environments from the women’s perspective. Security Journal, 27(2), 242–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lucas, K. (2004). Running on empty: Transport, social exclusion and environmental justice. Bristol: Policy Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lucas, K. (2006). Providing transport for social inclusion within a framework for environmental justice in the UK. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 40(10), 801–809.Google Scholar
  34. Lucas, K. (2011). Making the connections between transport disadvantage and the social exclusion of low income populations in the Tshwane region of South Africa. Journal of Transport Geography, 19(6), 1320–1334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lucas, K. (2012). Transport and social exclusion: Where are we now? Transport Policy, 20, 105–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lucas, K. (2013). Transport and social inclusion. In J.-P. Rodrigue, T. Notteboom, & J. Shaw (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of transport studies. London/Thousand Oaks/New Delhi/Singapore: Sage.Google Scholar
  37. Martens, K. (2012). Justice in transport as justice in accessibility: Applying Walzer’s ‘spheres of justice’ to the transport sector. Transportation, 39(6), 1035–1053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Martens, K. (2016). Transport justice: Designing fair transportation systems. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Martens, K., Golub, A., & Robinson, G. (2012). A justice-theoretic approach to the distribution of transportation benefits: Implications for transportation planning practice in the United States. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 46(4), 684–695.Google Scholar
  40. Polk, M. (2004). The influence of gender on daily car use and on willingness to reduce car use in Sweden. Journal of Transport Geography, 12, 185–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rosenbloom, S. (2006). Understanding women’s and men’s travel patterns: The research challenge. In Research on women’s issues in transportation: Volume 1 conference overview and plenary papers, conference proceedings (Vol. 35, pp. 7–28). Washington, DC: National Research Council.Google Scholar
  42. Salon, D., & Gulyani, S. (2010). Mobility, poverty, and gender: Travel ‘choices’ of slum residents in Nairobi, Kenya. Transport Reviews, 30(5), 641–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Scholten, C., Friberg, T., & Sandén, A. (2012). Re-reading time-geography from a gender perspective: Examples from gendered mobility. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 103(5), 584–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schwanen, T., Kwan, M.-P., & Ren, F. (2008). How fixed is fixed? Gendered rigidity of space–time constraints and geographies of everyday activities. Geoforum, 39, 2109–2121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sheller, M. (2012). Sustainable mobility and mobility justice: Towards a twin transition. In J. Urry & M. Grieco (Eds.), Mobilities: New perspectives on transport and society. Farnham/Burlington: Taylor and Francis.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sheller, M., & Urry, J. (2006). The new mobilities paradigm Environment and Planning A, 38(2), 207–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sheller, M., & Urry, J. (2016). Mobilizing the new mobilities paradigm. Applied Mobilities, 1(1), 10–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. SOER. (2015). European environment agency. Downloaded from: 20 Jan 2018.
  49. Song, H., Srinivasan, R., Sookoor, T., & Jeschke, S. (2017). Smart cities: Foundations and principles. New York: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Spivak, G. C., & Guha, R. (Eds.). (1988). Selected subaltern studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Uteng, T. P., & Cresswell, T. E. (2008). Gendered mobilities. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  52. Valentine, G. (2004). Public space and the culture of childhood. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  53. Vallance, S., Perkins, H. C., & Dixon, J. E. (2011). What is social sustainability? A clarification of concepts. Geoforum, 42(3), 342–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Vance, C., & Iovanna, R. (2007). Gender and the automobile: Analysis of nonwork service trips. Transportation Research Record, 2013, 54–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. WHO Fact Sheet. (2017). Climate change and health. Downloaded from: 20 Jan 2018.
  56. Wretstrand, A. (2007). Comfort and safety as perceived by wheelchair-seated bus passengers. Transportation Planning and Technology, 30(2–3), 205–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tanja Joelsson
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christina Lindkvist Scholten
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of EducationUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden
  2. 2.Malmö UniversityMalmöSweden
  3. 3.K2 – Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public TransportLundSweden

Personalised recommendations