Advertisement

Negotiated Prohibition: The Social Organisation of Illegal Gambling in Ukraine

  • Anna MarkovskaEmail author
  • Yuliya Zabyelina
Chapter
Part of the International Political Economy Series book series (IPES)

Abstract

This chapter draws on existing legitimacy scholarship in order to develop the concept of negotiated prohibition where power holders and banned service providers engage in mutually beneficial relations in order to secure illicit profits. We build our discussion of negotiated prohibition on the analysis of the 2009 ban on gambling in Ukraine. Our findings are based on data collected during an ethnographic trip to Ukraine undertaken in 2016, during which we conducted semi-structured interviews with representatives of the gambling industry (both those who operated before and after the 2009 gambling ban) in order to examine the relationship between power holders and gambling entrepreneurs. This chapter suggests that negotiated prohibition leads to the emergence of a fragmented and flexible social order that is characterised by discretionary enforcement of the ban and corrupt arrangements.

References

  1. ACF. 2016. Who Get Salary Declared in Ukraine? The Association of Consulting Firms, September 28. Available online from: http://acf.ua/eng/news/who-get-declared-salary-in-ukraine. Accessed 9 Sept 2017.
  2. Beetham, D. 1991. The Legitimation of Power. London: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. ———. 2013. The Legitimation Power. 2nd ed. London: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bilousova, N. 2014. Expert Opinion on the Reanimation of the Gambling in Ukraine. Eksperty: Predlozheniia Minfina po vozobnovleniiu azartnykh igr. Den.Kyiv.UA, August 19. Available online from: www.day.kiev.ua/ru/article/ekonomika/zachem-reanimiruyut-igornyy-biznes. Accessed 9 Sept 2017.
  5. Bottoms, A., and J. Tankebe. 2012. Beyond Procedural Justice: A Dialogic Approach to Legitimacy in Criminal Justice. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 102 (1): 119–170.Google Scholar
  6. Finckenauer, J.O. 2007. Mafia and Organized Crime: A Beginner’s Guide. London: Oneworld Publications.Google Scholar
  7. Friedrichs, D.O. 1980. The Legitimacy Crisis in the United States: A Conceptual Analysis. Social Problems 27 (5): 540–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Habermas, J. 1975. Legitimation Crisis. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  9. Hille, K. (2014). Russia Bars Ukraine Banks from Crimea. The Financial Times, April 21. Available online at: https://www.ft.com/content/f82547d0-c92a-11e3-bba1-00144feabdc0. Accessed 21 Sept 2017.
  10. Kovtun, E. 2012. The Business of Gambling in Russia. Moscow: Olymp-Business.Google Scholar
  11. Lesnoy’s School of Poker. 2017. The Biography. Available online at: http://www.dmitrylesnoy.com/?mod=school&tag=1. Accessed 7 Sept 2017.
  12. Lord, N. 2016. Establishing Enforcement Legitimacy in the Pursuit of Rule-Breaking ‘Global Elites’: The Case of Transnational Corporate Bribery. Theoretical Criminology 20 (3): 376–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Markovska, A., and A. Serduyk. 2011. Ukrainian Underworld: From Street Gambling Games to the Game of Politics and Big Business. In Usual and Unusual Organizing Criminals in Europe and Beyond: Profitable Crimes, From Underworld to Upper World, ed. G. Antonopoulos, M. Groenhuijsen, J. Harvey, T. Kooijmans, A. Maljevic, and K. von Lampe. Apeldoorn: Maklu.Google Scholar
  14. Markovska, A., and Y. Zabyelina. 2016. Enforcing Prohibition in Weak States: Gambling in Ukraine. In Narratives on Organised Crime in Europe: Criminals, Corrupters and Policy, ed. P. van Duyne, M. Scheinost, G. Antonopoulos, J. Harvey, and K. von Lampe, 93–119. Oistewijk: Wolf Legal Publishers.Google Scholar
  15. Morris, J., and A. Polese, eds. 2015. Informal Economies in Post-Socialist Spaces: Practices, Institutions and Networks. New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  16. NPU. 2015. Press Release of 29 July. National Police of Ukraine. Available online at: https://kv.npu.gov.ua/uk/img/kyivska/uk/publish/article/1577801
  17. ———. 2017. Press Release of 28 April. National Police of Ukraine. Available online at: https://kv.npu.gov.ua/uk/img/kyivska/uk/publish/article/2158726
  18. Pogrebnyak, L. 2008. “Gamblers’ Empire” Wins (Vyigryvayet “imperiia azarta”, “Odnorukie bandity” –vlastiam ne po zubam). The Day, October 14. Available online at: http://www.day.kiev.ua/ru/article/ekonomika/vyigryvaet-imperiya-azarta. Accessed 15 Sept 2017.
  19. Rating Group. 2017. Public Opinion on Gambling Among Ukrainians (Stavlennia ykraintsiv do azartnykh ihor). Sociological Group Rating (Rating Group Ukraine), April 6. Available online at: http://ratinggroup.ua/research/ukraine/otnoshenie_ukraincev_k_azartnym_igram.html. Accessed 7 Sept 2017.
  20. Reshetnyak, O. 2016. Increase in Casinos Operating Under Police Protection (V Ukraine rastet kolichestvo kazino pod “kryshei politsii). Podrobnosti, September 25. Available online at: http://podrobnosti.ua/2133507-v-ukraine-rastet-kolichestvo-kazino-pod-kryshej-politsii.html. Accessed 3 Sept 2017.
  21. Sampson, S. 1987. The Second Economy of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 493 (1): 120–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Simis, K. 1982. USSR: Secrets of Corrupt Society. London: Dent.Google Scholar
  23. Smith, H. 1984. The Russians. Revised Edition. New York: Ballantine Books.Google Scholar
  24. Tankebe, J. 2013. Viewing Things Differently: The Dimensions of Public Perceptions of Police Legitimacy. Criminology 51 (1): 103–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tsytarev, S., and Y. Gilinsky. 2009. Russia. In Problem Gambling in Europe. Challenges, Prevention and Intervention, ed. G. Meyer, T. Hayer, and M. Griffiths, 243–256. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tyler, T. 1990. Why People Obey the Law. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  27. ———. 2003. Procedural Justice, Legitimacy, and the Effective Rule of Law. Crime and Justice 30: 283–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. UCIPR. 2009. Political Risks and Political Stability in Ukraine. The Ukrainian Centre for Independent Political Research (UCIPR). Available at: http://pdc.ceu.hu/archive/00005497/01/Political_risks_May2009e.pdf. Accessed 3 Sept.
  29. Wedel, J.R. 2005. Flex Organizing and Clan-State: Perspectives on Crime and Corruption in the New Russia. In Ruling Russia: Law, Crime and Justice in a Changing Society, ed. W.A. Pridemore, 101–117. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar

Video Files

  1. YouTube. 2015. Fight Between the Casino Security and the Right Sector (V Odesse okhrana kazino izbila aktivistov “Pravogo Sektora”). In Available online at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RORvxyepB8M&feature=youtu.be. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.

Legislative Documents and Court Files

  1. Draft Law of Ukraine as of 13 May 2016 # 4663 “On the Re-legalizing of the Gambling Market and the Provision of Budget Revenues in Order to Fulfill Social Obligations” (Проект закона Украины от 13.05.2016 No. 4663 “Pro detinizatsiiu rynku azartnykh ihor ta zabezpechennia dokhodamy biudzhetu z metoiu vikonannia sotsialnykh zoboviazan”). Available in Ukrainian at: http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/JH3LJ00A.html. Accessed 19 Sept 2017.
  2. Federal Law of the Russian Federation No. 244FZ as of 29 December 2006. On State Regulation of Organization and Management of Gambling and Changes to Related Legislation of the Russian Federation. Available in Russian at: http://kremlin.ru/acts/bank/24822
  3. Federal Law of the Russian Federation No. 278-FZ as of 22 July 2014. On Changes to the Federal Law ‘On State Regulation of Organization and Management of Gambling and Changes to Related Legislation of the Russian Federation.’ Available in Russian at http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&prevDoc=102111150&backlink=1&&nd=102356113
  4. Law of Ukraine on the Prohibition of Gambling (Zakon Ukrainy pro zaboronu hral’nogo biznesu) No. 1334-VI. Available in Ukrainian at: http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1334-17
  5. Supreme Court of Ukraine. 2014. Court Judgement. Chamber of Justice in Administrative Cases of the Supreme Court of Ukraine. February 4, Kyiv. https://view.officeapps.live.com/op/view.aspx?src=http://www.scourt.gov.ua/clients/vsu/vsu.nsf/7864c99c46598282c2257b4c0037c014/4dcf54ff9a34d916c2257c94003c0f29/$FILE/21-333%D0%B013.doc. Please note this material is subject to geo-blocking and is only available to users with IP address in Ukraine.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Anglia Ruskin UniversityCambridgeUK
  2. 2.John Jay College of Criminal JusticeCity University of New YorkNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations