Conversations Bamakoises in Time of Crisis: Criminalisation of Everyday Life and State Formation in Mali

  • Giovanni Zanoletti
Part of the International Political Economy Series book series (IPES)


Based on the distinction between the State—that is, the nation-state institutional model—and the state—that is, the reticular power structures which the State partakes of/in, thereby producing distinctive governmentality model, this chapter takes Mali as a case study to inquire whether the “criminalisation of everyday life” as a mode of existence rather than a systemic dysfunction hindering state formation. Field research shows how criminalisation, by contrast, not only constitutes an important process in the shaping of how people think, live, and do politics, but also is capable of producing state and governance.


  1. Abderrahmane, A. 2012. The Dire Situation in the North of Mali Is Further Complicated by the Growing Presence of Drug Traffickers. Institute for Security Studies, August 6.
  2. Amselle, J.-L. 1985. Socialislme, Capitalisme et Précapitalisme au Mali (1960–1982). In Contradictions of Accumulation in Africa, ed. H. Bernstein and B.K. Campbell. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  3. ———. 1987. Fonctionnaires et hommes d’affaires au Mali. Politique africaine, 26.Google Scholar
  4. Bagayogo, S. 1987. L’État au Mali: representation, autonomie et mode de fonctionnement. In L’État contemporain en Afrique, ed. E. Terray. Paris: L’Harmattan.Google Scholar
  5. Bayart, J.-F., S. Ellis, and B. Hibou. 1999. The Criminalisation of the State in Africa. London: International African Institute.Google Scholar
  6. Berman, B.J., and J. Lonsdale. 1992. Unhappy Valley. Conflict in Kenya and Africa. London: James Currey.Google Scholar
  7. Bigot, L. 2012. Les défis du Sahel: focus sur la crise malienne. June 22.
  8. Deleuze, G. 1990. Pourparlers 1972–1990. Paris: Minuit.Google Scholar
  9. Foucault, M. 1971. Orders of Discourse. Social Science Information 10 (2): 7–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. ———. 1984. Le pouvoir, comment s’exerce-t-il ? In Michel Foucault, un parcours philosophique, ed. H.L. Dreyfus and P. Rabinow. Paris: Gallimard.Google Scholar
  11. Global Initiative against Transnational Organized Crime. 2014. Illicit Trafficking and Instability in Mali: Past, Present and Future.
  12. Grémont, C. 2010. Les Touaregs Iwellemmedan (1647–1896). Un ensemble politique de la Boucle du Niger. Paris: Karthala.Google Scholar
  13. Guyer, J. 2000. La tradition de l’invention en Afrique équatoriale. Politique africaine 3 (79): 101–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ignatieff, M. 2002. State Failure and Nation-Building. In Humanitarian Intervention: Ethical, Legal and Political Dilemmas, ed. J.L. Holzgrefe and R. Keohane. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Jackson, R.H. 1990. Quasi-States: Sovereignty, International Relations and the Third World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Kedzierska-Manzon, A. 2014. Chasseurs mandingues: violence, pouvoir et religion en Afrique de l’Ouest. Paris: Karthala.Google Scholar
  17. Latour, de. 1982. La paix destructrice. In Guerres de lignages et guerres d’états en Afrique, ed. J. Bazin and E. Terray. Paris: Éditions des Archives Contemporaines.Google Scholar
  18. Marchal, R. 2002. Les frontières de la paix et de la guerre. Politix 15 (58): 39–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Olivier de Sardan, J.-P. 1982. Le cheval et l’arc. In Guerres de lignages et guerres d’états en Afrique, ed. J. Bazin and E. Terray. Paris: Éditions des Archives Contemporaines.Google Scholar
  20. Roitman, J. 2005. Fiscal Disobedience: An Anthropology of Regulation in Central Africa. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Rotberg, R. 2003. State Failure and State Weakness in a Time of Terror. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  22. Tilly, C. 1985. War Making and State Making as Organized Crime. In Bringing the State Back in, ed. P.B. Evans, D. Rueschemeyer, and T. Skocpol. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Weber, M. 2003 [1964]. L’éthique protestante et l’esprit du capitalisme. Paris: Gallimard.Google Scholar
  24. Zartman, W. 1995. Collapsed States: The Disintegration and Restoration of Legitimate Authority. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanni Zanoletti
    • 1
  1. 1.Université Paris NanterreParisFrance

Personalised recommendations