Advertisement

‘Stealing from the State Is Not Stealing Really, It Is a National Sport’: A Study of Informal Economic Practices and Low-Level Corruption in Hungary

  • Fanni Gyurko
Chapter
Part of the International Political Economy Series book series (IPES)

Abstract

This chapter explores dynamics of informality in the post-socialist Hungarian context by focusing on low-level corruption and informal economic practices and employing a socio-legal perspective. It looks at the interactions between people, state officials, and institutions, searching for disconnects between the law as it is posited by the state and law as it is lived, disconnects thus resulting in plural normative orders. The chapter draws on data collected between April and May 2015 including 20 in-depth interviews and observations. The participants were recruited from—and connected to—the state sectors which are most influenced by informal economic practices: police, health care, education, local government, and handling the European Union funds.

References

  1. Anders, G., and M. Nuijten. 2007. Corruption and the Secret of Law: An Introduction. In Corruption and the Secret of Law: A Legal Anthropological Perspective, ed. M. Nuijten and G. Anders, 1–24. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  2. Barber, N.W. 2006. Legal Pluralism and the European Union. European Law Journal 12 (3): 306–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Deflem, M. 2008. Sociology of Law: Visions of a Scholarly Tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ehrlich, E. 1962. Fundamental Principles of the Sociology of Law. Vol. 5. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  5. Gaal, P. (2006) Gift, Fee or Bribe? Informal Payments in Hungary. Global Corruption Report, 71–74.Google Scholar
  6. GRECO Eval I Rep. 2002. 5E Final, Evaluation Report on Hungary, First Evaluation Round, Adopted by GRECO at its 13th Plenary Meeting, Strasbourg, 24–28 March 2003.Google Scholar
  7. Griffiths, J. 1986. What Is Legal Pluralism? The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law 18 (24): 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gupta, A. 1995. Blurred Boundaries: The Discourse of Corruption, the Culture of Politics, and the Imagined State. American Ethnologist 22 (2): 375–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hann, C.M., ed. 2002. Postsocialism: Ideals, Ideologies, and Practices in Eurasia. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  10. Humphrey, C. 2002. The Unmaking of Soviet Life: Everyday Economies After Socialism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  11. HVG. 2016. Kövér aláírta a 250 milliárdos MNB-s alapítványi pénzt szemünk elől eldugó törvényt. Heti Vilag Gazdasag, March 6 [Online]. Available at: https://hvg.hu/gazdasag/20160306_Kover_250_milliardos_MNB_kozpenz_jegybank_torveny. Accessed 12 Sept 2017.
  12. Jancsics, D. 2013. Petty Corruption in Central and Eastern Europe: The Client’s Perspective. Crime, Law and Social Change 60 (3): 319–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. ———. 2015. “A Friend Gave Me a Phone Number” – Brokerage in Low-Level Corruption. International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice 43 (1): 68–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kornai, J., ed. 2004. Building a Trustworthy State in Post-Socialist Transition. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  15. Kornai, J., B. Rothstein, and S. Rose-Ackerman, eds. 2004. Creating Social Trust in Post-Socialist Transition. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  16. Krémer, F. 1998. A rendőri szubkultúra és a korrupció néhány problémája. Belügyi Szemle 10: 34–64.Google Scholar
  17. Ledeneva, A.V. 1998. Russia’s Economy of Favours: Blat, Networking and Informal Exchange. Vol. 102. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Lomnitz, L.A. 1988. Informal Exchange Networks in Formal Systems: A Theoretical Model. American Anthropologist 90 (1): 42–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lonkila, M. 1997. Informal Exchange Relations in Post-soviet Russia: A Comparative Perspective. Sociological Research Online 2 (2): 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mandel, R., and C. Humphrey. 2002. Markets and Moralities: Ethnographies of Postsocialism. Oxford/New York: Berg.Google Scholar
  21. Merry, S.E. 1992. Anthropology, Law, and Transnational Processes. Annual Review of Anthropology 21 (1): 357–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Morris, J., and A. Polese, eds. 2013. The Informal Post-Socialist Economy: Embedded Practices and Livelihoods. Vol. 50. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Mungiu-Pippidi, A. 2005. EU Enlargement and Democracy Progress. In Democratisation in the European Neighbourhood, 15–37. Brussels: CEPS Centre for European Policy Studies.Google Scholar
  24. Polese, A. 2008. ‘If I Receive It, It Is a Gift; If I Demand It, then It Is a Bribe’: On the Local Meaning of Economic Transactions in Post-Soviet Ukraine. Anthropology in Action 15 (3): 47–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Routh, S. 2011. Building Informal Workers Agenda: Imagining ‘Informal Employment’ in Conceptual Resolution of ‘Informality’. Global Labour Journal 2 (3): 208–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rumyantseva, N.L. 2005. Taxonomy of Corruption in Higher Education. Peabody Journal of Education 80 (1): 81–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schweitzer, H. 2004. Corruption–Its Spread and Decline. The New Institutional Economics of Corruption, 30–53. Oxford/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Shore, C., and D. Haller. 2005. Introduction–Sharp Practice: Anthropology and the Study of Corruption. In Corruption: Anthropological Perspectives, ed. D. Haller and C. Shore. London: Pluto.Google Scholar
  29. Sík, E. 2012. A kapcsolati tőke szociológiája. Budapest: ELTE Eötvös kiadó.Google Scholar
  30. Szende, A., and A.J. Culyer. 2006. The Inequity of Informal Payments for Health Care: The Case of Hungary. Health Policy 75 (3): 262–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Thelen, T. 2011. Shortage, Fuzzy Property and Other Dead Ends in the Anthropological Analysis of (post) Socialism. Critique of Anthropology 31 (1): 43–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tölgyessy, P. 2014. 1989 és 1990 két megegyezése a kompromisszumokat kevésre becsülő Magyarországon. In Kompromisszumok a közép-európai politikai kultúrában, 81–89. Budapest: Közép-és Keleteurópai Történelem és Társadalom Kutatásáért Közalapítvány.Google Scholar
  33. Transparency International. 2016. The 2016 Corruption Perception Index. Berlin: TI.Google Scholar
  34. Urinboyev, R., and M. Svensson. 2013. Living Law, Legal Pluralism, and Corruption in Post-Soviet Uzbekistan. The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law 45 (3): 372–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. von Benda-Beckmann, F. 2002. Who’s Afraid of Legal Pluralism? The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law 34 (47): 37–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Weber, M. 1968. On Charisma and Institution Building. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  37. Ziegert, K.A. 2009. World Society, Nation State and Living Law in the Twenty-first Century. In Living Law: Reconsidering Eugen Ehrlich, 223–236. Oxford/Portland: Hart Publishing.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fanni Gyurko
    • 1
  1. 1.University of GlasgowGlasgowScotland

Personalised recommendations