Advertisement

Studying Parental Attitudes to Intergenerational Transmission of a Heritage Language: Polish in Regensburg

  • Hanna PułaczewskaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Second Language Learning and Teaching book series (SLLT)

Abstract

The study attempts to systematically relate family language policies, their perception of social pressures, and parents’ axiological stances. The objective is to provide an empirical account of variance in parenting styles and associated family language policies of Polish-speaking parents in Regensburg, Germany. The data consisted of interviews conducted with 20 immigrant Polish-speaking mothers of teenagers living in Germany since infancy. Interview data have been subjected to an inductive analysis in order to identify crucial aspects of variance in stances of immigrant parents, reflected in the observed variance of their children’s competence in Polish. The outcome is a typology of parents’ axiological attitudes to parenting, involving relative primacy of values such as child autonomy, child security, parent-child relation, nation, religion, and extended family that affect the decision on in how far Polish is being passed on to children. This is followed by a typology of conative attitudes to the intergenerational transmission of Polish which does not stop at the extent to which Polish is cultivated in the interaction with the child, but also indicates dichotomous motivations for suppression or marginalisation of Polish—submission to social pressure or communicative advantages.

Keywords

Assimilation Immigration Parenting Value Family language policy Bilingualism 

References

  1. Bartol-Jarosińska, D. (1994). Język polski i tożsamość polska na emigracji. In S. Dubisz (Ed.), Granice i pogranicza (pp. 145–156). Warszawa: PWN.Google Scholar
  2. Berry, J. W. (1980). Acculturation as varieties of adaptation. In A. Padilla (Ed.), Acculturation: Theory, models and findings (pp. 9–25). Boulder: Westview.Google Scholar
  3. Berry, J. W. (2001). A psychology of immigration. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 615–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brizić, K. (2009). Bildungsgewinn bei Sprachverlust? Ein soziolinguistischer Versuch, Gegensätze zu überwinden. In I. Gogolin & U. Neumann (Eds.), Streitfall Zweisprachigkeit—The bilingualism controversy (pp. 133–143). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Caldas, S. J., & Caron-Caldas, S. (2002). A sociolinguistic analysis of preferences of the language preferences of bilingual adolescents: Shifting allegiances and developing identities. Applied Linguistics, 23(4), 490–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chik, C. A. (2010). Looking both ways: Structure, agency, and language ideology at a Chinese Saturday school. Los Angeles: University of California.Google Scholar
  7. Chiro, G. (n.d.). Florian Znaniecki’s humanistic sociology revisited. Retrieved from https://tasa.org.au/wpcontent/uploads/2008/12/312.pdf.
  8. Esser, H. (2006). Sprache und Integration. Die sozialen Bedingungen und Folgen des Spracherwerbs von Migranten. Frankfurt am Main: Campus Verlag.Google Scholar
  9. Gruszczyński, J. (1981). Społeczność polska we Francji 1918-1978. Problemy integracyjne trzech pokoleń. Warszawa: PWN.Google Scholar
  10. Guardado, J. M. (2008). Language socialization in Canadian Hispanic communities: Ideologies and practices. Doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia (Canada).Google Scholar
  11. Hitlin, S. (2003). Values as the core of personal identity: Drawing links between two theories of self. Social Psychology Quarterly, 66(2), 118–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jańczak, B. A. (2013). Deutsch-polnische Familien: Ihre Sprachen und Familienkulturen in Deutschland und in Polen. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kasatkina, N. (2010). Analyzing language choice among Russian-speaking immigrants to the United States. Doctoral dissertation. The University of Arizona.Google Scholar
  14. Katz, D. (1937). Attitude measurement as a method in social psychology. [Electronic version]. Social Forces, 15(4), 479–482. Retrieved from http://psych.colorado.edu/~chlo0473/teaching/2015_F/articles/Katz_1960.pdf.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. King, K., Fogle, L. (2006). Bilingual parenting as good parenting: Parents’ perspectives on family language policy for additive bilingualism. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 9.6, 695–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. King, K. A., & Fogle, L. W. (2013). Research timeline. Family language policy and bilingual parenting. Language Teaching, 46.2, 172–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Krashen, S. (1992). Fundamentals of language education. Torrance, CA: Laredo.Google Scholar
  18. Kringas, P., Lewins, F. (1979). Migrant definitions of ethnic schools: Selected case studies: Preliminary report to the Education Research and Development Committee. Canberra: Education Research and Development Committe.Google Scholar
  19. Lao, C. (2004). Parents’ attitudes toward Chinese-English bilingual education and Chinese-language use. Bilingual Research Journal, 28(1), 99–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lei, J. (2007). A language socialization approach to the interplay of ethnic revitalization and heritage language learning—Case studies of Chinese American adolescents. Diss.: State University of New York at Albany.Google Scholar
  21. Okita, T. (2002). Invisible work. Bilingualism, language choice and childrearing in intermarried families. The Netherlands: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Park, H., Tsai, K. M., Liu, L. L., & Lau, A. S. (2012). Transactional associations between supportive family climate and young children’s heritage language proficiency in immigrant families. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 36(3), 226–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Plopa, J. (2005). Psychologia rodziny. Teoria i badania. Kraków: Impuls.Google Scholar
  24. Pułaczewska, H. (2008). Społeczne i organizacyjne aspekty rozwoju i podtrzymywania dwujęzyczności u dzieci dwukulturowych. In A. Głowala & I. Witczak-Plisiecka (Eds.), Języki obce w przedszkolu i w szkole podstawowej w perspektywie interdyscyplinarnej/Interdisciplinary perspectives on foreign language pedagogy at the primary level (Vol. 7, pp. 39–52). Zeszyty Naukowe PWSZ w Płocku, Pedagogika.Google Scholar
  25. Pułaczewska, H. (2014). Polish-German bilingualism at school: a Polish perspective. Linguistik Online, 64. Special issue: Language Convergence in Bi- and Multilinguals, 69–81.Google Scholar
  26. Pułaczewska, H. (2017). Wychowanie do języka polskiego w Niemczech na przykładzie Ratyzbony. Dwujęzyczność dzieci z perspektywy rodziców. Primum Verbum: Łódź.Google Scholar
  27. Roche, J. (2013). Mehrsprachigkeitstheorie. Tübingen: Narr.Google Scholar
  28. Rosenberg, M. J., & Hovland, C. I. (1960). Cognitive, affective and behavioral components of attitudes. In M. J. Rosenberg & C. I. Hovland (Eds.), Attitude organization and change: An analysis of consistency among attitude components (pp. 112–163). New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Schwartz, S. (1994). Are there universal aspects in the structure and content of human values? Journal of Social Issues, 50, 19–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schwartz, S. (1996). Value priorities and behavior: Applying a theory of integrated value systems. In C. Seligman, J. M. Olson, & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), The Ontario symposium: Vol. 8. The psychology of values (pp. 1–24). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Retrieved from http://www.palermo.edu/scienciassociales/psicologia/publicaciones/pdf/Psico2/2Psico%2007.pdf.
  31. Schwartz, M. (2010). Family language policy: Core issues of an emerging field. Applied Linguistics Review, 1(1), 171–192.Google Scholar
  32. Shepherd, S. (2006). Maintaining an immigrant heritage language other than Spanish or English in the bilingual culture of the Rio Grande Valley of South Texas. Diss.: The University of Texas-Pan American.Google Scholar
  33. Smolicz, J. J. (1974). The concept of tradition: A humanistic sociological interpretation. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology, 10(2), 75–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Smolicz, J. J. (1992). Minority languages as core values of ethnic cultures. In W. Hase, S. Kroon, & K. Jaspaert (Eds.), Maintenance and loss of minority languages (pp. 277–305). Amsterdam: Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Smolicz, J. J., & Secombe, M. J. (1981). The Australian school through children’s eyes. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Spolsky, B. (2004). Language policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Spolsky, B. (2009). Language management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tannenbaum, M. (2005). Viewing family relations through a linguistic lens: Symbolic aspects of language maintenance in immigrant families. Journal of Family Communication, 5(3), 229–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tannenbaum, M., & Howie, P. (2002). The association between language maintenance and family relations: Chinese immigrant children in Australia. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23(5), 408–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wong Fillmore, L. (2000). Loss of family languages: Should educators be concerned? Theory Into Practice, 39(4), 203–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yang, T. (2008). Hmong parents’ critical reflections on their children’s heritage language maintenance. Journal of Southeast Asian American Education and Advancement, 3. Retrieved from http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/jsaaea/vol3/iss1/17.
  42. Znaniecki, F. (1963). Cultural sciences. Urbana: University of Illinois.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Philological FacultyUniwersytet SzczecińskiSzczecinPoland

Personalised recommendations