Advertisement

Polymeric Semiconductors as Efficient Photocatalysts for Water Purification and Solar Hydrogen Production

  • Sudesh Kumar
  • Raghava Reddy Kakarla
  • Ch. Venkata Reddy
  • Enamul Haque
  • Veera Sadhu
  • S. Naveen
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 31)

Abstract

Environmental contamination is one of the serious issues to an environment and human health due to the contamination of a wide range of organic chemicals, industrial dyes and other hazardous substances in the drinking water, air and land. The innovation of the photocatalytic process has been presented to be the green and feasible method for the environmental decontamination.

Photocatalysis has a wide range of application such as wastewater treatment (organic dye degradation), disinfection, solar water splitting, CO2 reduction and air purification. Many photocatalysts have been developed for the disintegration of water into CO2, H2O and other non-harmful substances. Compounds, with the help of O2, act as clean oxidants. Among various photocatalytic materials, the polymeric semiconducting photocatalysts show highly efficient photocatalytic performance for various photocatalytic applications. For example, oxygenated groups present on the surface of graphene oxide (GO) make it effective in the removal of pollutants such as phenol, chlorophenol and industrial dyes. In this chapter, we discussed various chemical methodologies, properties and photocatalytic applications of polymeric semiconductors (carbon nitride, C3N4), graphene and metal-organic framework (MOF)-based hybrid nanostructured photocatalysts for the water purification and the solar hydrogen production. Such efficient photocatalysts are expected to solve the issues of environmental remediation.

Keywords

Graphene oxide Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4Metal-organic framework (MOF) TiO2 Semiconductors Functional heterostructured hybrid photocatalysts Photocatalysis Antibacterial activity Photocatalysis fundamentals Catalysts characterization Photocatalysts kinetics Photocatalytic mechanism Environmental applications Environmental decontamination Organic dye degradation Wastewater purification Hydrogen evolution reactions Solar hydrogen production 

References

  1. Bivins AW, Sumner T, Kumpel E, Howard G, Cumming O, Ross I, Nelson K, Brown J (2017) Estimating infection risks and the global burden of diarrheal disease attributable to intermittent water supply using QMRA. Environ Sci Technol 51:7542–7551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Castillo A, Vall P, Baserba MG, Comas J, Poch M (2017) Selection of industrial (food, drink and milk sector) wastewater treatment technologies: a multi-criteria assessment. J Clean Prod 143:180–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chamorn M, Yasuyoshi H (2006) Antifungal activity of TiO2 photocatalysis against Penicillium expansum in vitro and in fruit tests. Int J Food Microbiol 2:99–103Google Scholar
  4. Chandana L, Subrahmanyam C (2017) Non-thermal discharge plasma promoted redox transformation of arsenic (III) and chromium (VI) in an aqueous medium. Chem Eng J 329:211–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen S, Wang LW (2012) Thermo-dynamic oxidation and reduction potentials of photocatalytic semiconductors in aqueous solution. Chem Mater 24:3659–3666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen JF, Wang YU, Guo F, Wang XM, Zheng C (2000) Synthesis of nanoparticles with novel technology: high-gravity reactive precipitation. Ind Eng Chem Res 39:948–954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cheng CL, Sun DS, Chu WC, Tseng YH, Ho HC, Wang JB, Chung PH, Chen JH, Tsai PJ, Lin NT, Yu MS, Chang HH (2009) The effects of the bacterial interaction with visible-light responsive titania photocatalyst on the bactericidal performance. J Biomed Sci 16:7. (10 pgs)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Colmenares JC, Luque R (2014) Heterogeneous photocatalytic nanomaterials: prospects and challenges in selective transformations of biomass-derived compounds. Chem Soc Rev 43:765–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dai K, Lu L, Liu Q, Zhu G, Wei X, Bai J, Xuan L, Wang H (2014) Sonication assisted preparation of graphene oxide/graphitic-C3N4 nanosheet hybrid with reinforced photocurrent for photocatalyst applications. Dalton Trans 43:6295–6299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dasireddy VBCC, Likozar B (2017) Activation and decomposition of methane over cobalt-copper and iron-based heterogeneous catalysts for COx-free hydrogen and multi walled carbon nanotube production. Energy Technol 5:1344–1355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Duan J, Chen S, Jaroniec M, Qiao SZ (2015) Porous C3N4 nanolayers@N-graphene films as catalyst electrodes for highly efficient hydrogen evolution. ACS Nano 9:931–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Duffy EF, Al Touati F, Kehoe SC, McLoughlin OA, Gill LW, Gernjak W, Mc Guigan KG (2004) A novel TiO2-assisted solar photocatalytic batch-process disinfection reactor for the treatment of biological and chemical contaminants in domestic drinking water in developing countries. Sol Energy 77:649–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fujishima A, Zhang X, Tryk DA (2007) Heterogeneous photocatalysis: from water photolysis to applications in environmental cleanup. Int J Hydrogen Energ 32:2664–2672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gillan EG (2000) Synthesis of nitrogen-rich carbon nitride networks from an energetic molecular azide precursor. Chem Mater 12:3906–3912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Han C, Chen Z, Zhang N, Colmenares JC, Xu Y-J (2015) Hierarchically CdS decorated 1D ZnO nanorods-2D graphene hybrids: low temperature synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic performance. Adv Funct Mater 25:221–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Han Q, Wang B, Gao J, Cheng ZH, Zhao Y, Zhang ZP, Qu LT (2016) Atomically thin mesoporous nano mesh of graphitic C3N4 for high-efficiency photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. ACS Nano 10:2745–2751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Han Q, Chen N, Zhang J, Qu L (2017) Graphene/graphitic carbon nitride hybrids for catalysis. Mater Horiz 4:832–850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hathway T, Rockafellow EM, Jenks WS, Chul Oh Y (2009) Photocatalytic degradation using tungsten-modified TiO2 and visible light: kinetic and mechanistic effects using multiple catalyst doping strategies. J Photochem Photobiol A 207:197–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ishibashi KI, Fujishima A, Watanabe T, Hashimoto K (2000) Detection of active oxidative species in TiO2 photocatalysis using the fluorescence technique. Electrochem Commun 2:207–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Job WK, Kang HJ (2013) Polyacrylonitrile-TiO2 fibers for control of gaseous aromatic compounds. Ind Eng Chem Res 52:4475–4483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kilmartin PA, Wright GA (2001) Photoeffects to characterise polypyrrole electrodes and bilayers with polyaniline. Electrochim Acta 46:2787–2794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kim J, Sohn D, Sung Y, Kim ER (2003a) Fabrication and characterization of conductive polypyrrole thin film prepared by in situ vapor-phase polymerization. Synth Met 132:309–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kim B, Kim D, Cho D, Cho S (2003b) Bactericidal effect of TiO2 photocatalyst on selected food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Chemosphere 52:277–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kochuveedu ST (2016) Photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting on TiO2 via photosensitization. J Nanomater. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4073142
  25. Komatsu T, Nakamura T (2001) Polycondensation/pyrolysis of tris-s-triazine derivatives leading to graphite-like carbon nitrides. J Mater Chem 11:474–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Li Y, Zhang H, Liu P, Wang D, Li Y, Zhao H (2013) Cross-linked g-C3N4/rGO nanocomposites with tunable band structure and enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity. Small 9:3336–3344Google Scholar
  27. Li HY, Gan SY, Wang HY, Han DX, Niu L (2015) Intercorrelated superhybrid of AgBr supported on graphitic-C3N4-decorated nitrogen-doped graphene: high engineering photocatalytic activities for water purification and CO2 reduction. Adv Mater 27:6906–6913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Liang Q, Jin J, Zhang M, Liu Q, Xu S, Yao C, Li Z (2017) Construction of mesoporous carbon nitride/binary metal sulfide heterojunction photocatalysts for enhanced degradation of pollution under visible light. Appl Catal B 218:545–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Liao G, Chen S, Quan X, Yu H, Zhao H (2012) Graphene oxide modified g-C3N4 hybrid with enhanced photocatalytic capability under visible light irradiation. J Mater Chem 22:2721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Liu Q, Guo YR, Chen ZH, Zhang ZG, Fang XM (2016) Constructing a novel ternary Fe(III)/graphene/g-C3N4 composite photocatalyst with enhanced visible-light driven photocatalytic activity via interfacial charge transfer effect. Appl Catal B 183:231–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Man MKL, Margiolakis A, Jones SD, Harada T, Wong EL, Krishna MBM, Madeo J, Winchester A, Lei S, Vajtai R, Ajayan PM, Dani KM (2017) Imaging the motion of electrons across semiconductor heterojunctions. Nat Nanotechnol 12:36–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Miller DR, Wang J, Gillan EG (2002) Rapid, facile synthesis of nitrogen-rich carbon nitride powders. J Mater Chem 12:2463–2469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mohamed AA, EI-Sayed R, Osman T, Toprak M, Muhammed M, Uheida A (2016) Composite nanofibers for highly efficient photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes from contaminated water. Environ Res 145:18–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Novoselov KS, Falko VI, Colombo L, Gellert PR, Schwab MG, Kim K (2012) A roadmap for graphene. Nature 490:192–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pan X, Yang MQ, Tang ZR, Xu Y-J (2014) Noncovalently functionalized graphene-directed synthesis of ultralarge graphene-based TiO2 nanosheet composites: tunable morphology and photocatalytic applications. J Phys Chem C 118:27325–27335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rajendra CP, Varsha K, Caroline SYL (2014) Hybrid photocatalysts using graphitic carbon nitride/cadmium sulfide/reduced graphene oxide (g-C3N4/CdS/RGO) for superior photodegradation of organic pollutants under UV and visible light. Dalton Trans 43:12514–12527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ramirz KB, Kim D, Cho D, Cho S (2015) 4-chlorophenol removal from water using graphite and graphene oxides as photocatalysts. J Environ Health Sci Eng 13:33. (10pgs)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Samsudin EM, Goh SN, Wu TY, Ling TT, Bee S, Hamid A, Juan JC (2015) Evaluation on the photocatalytic degradation activity of reactive blue 4 using pure anatase nano-TiO2. Sains Malays 44:1011–1019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shalom M, Gimenez S, Schipper F, Herraiz-Cardona I, Bisquert J, Antonietti M (2014) Controlled carbon nitride growth on surfaces for hydrogen evolution electrodes. Angew Chem Int Ed 53:3654–3658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Szabó T, Berkesi O, Forgó P, Josepovits K, Sanakis Y, Petridis D, Dékány I (2006) Evolution of surface functional groups in a series of progressively oxidized graphite oxides. Chem Mater 18:2740–2749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tan SN, Ge H (1996) Investigation into vapour-phase formation of polypyrrole. Polymer 37:965–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Vachon DD, Angus RO, Lu FL, Nowak M, Liu ZX, Schaffer H (1987) Polyaniline is poly-para- phenyleneamineimine: proof of structure by synthesis. Synth Met 18:297–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Vukmirovic N, Wang LW (2009) Electronic structure of disordered conjugated polymers: polythiophenes. J Phys Chem B 113:409–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wang J, Neoh KG, Kang ET (2004) Comparative study of chemically synthesized and plasma polymerized pyrrole and thiophene thin films. Thin Solid Films 446:205–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wang X, Blechert S, Antonietti M (2012) Polymeric graphitic carbon nitride for heterogeneous photocatalysis. ACS Catal 2:1596–1606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wang S, Li D, Sun C, Yang S, Guan Y, He H (2014) Synthesis and characterization of g-C3N4/Ag3VO4 composites with significantly enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity for triphenylmethane dye degradation. Appl Catal B 144:885–892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Xu J, Hou J, Zhang S, Zhang R, Nie G, Pu S (2006) Electrosyntheses of high quality poly(5-methylindole) films in mixed electrolytes of boron trifluoride diethyl etherate and diethyl ether. Eur Polym J 42:1384–1395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Yan SC, Li ZS, Zou ZG (2009) Photodegradation performance of g-C3N4 fabricated by directly heating melamine. Langmuir 25:10397–10401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Yang MQ, Xu YJ (2013) Selective photo redox using graphene-based composite photocatalysts. Phys Chem Chem Phys 15:19102–19118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Yang MQ, Xu YJ (2016) Photocatalytic conversion of CO2 over graphene-based composites: current status and future perspective. Nanoscale Horiz 1:185–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Yang MQ, Zhang N, Pagliaro M, Xu YJ (2014) Artificial photosynthesis over graphene–semiconductor composites. Are we getting better? Chem Soc Rev 43:8240–8254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Yu Q, Guo S, Li X, Zhang M (2014) Template free fabrication of porous g-C3N4/graphene hybrid with enhanced photocatalytic capability under visible light. Mater Technol 29:172–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yuan L, Yang MQ, Xu YJ (2014) Tuning the surface charge of graphene for self-assembly synthesis of a SnNb2O6 nanosheet–graphene (2D–2D) nanocomposite with enhanced visible light photoactivity. Nanoscale 6:6335–6345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zhang J, Xiao FX, Xiao G, Liu B (2014) Self-assembly of a Ag nanoparticle-modified and graphene-wrapped TiO2 nanobelt ternary heterostructure: surface charge tuning toward efficient photocatalysis. Nanoscale 6:11293–11302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zhang N, Yang MQ, Liu S, Sun Y, Xu YJ (2015) Waltzing with the versatile platform of graphene to synthesize composite photocatalysts. Chem Rev 115:10307–10377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhao Y, Zhao F, Wang X, Xu C, Zhang Z, Shi G, Qu L (2014) Graphitic carbon nitride nanoribbons: graphene-assisted formation and synergic function for highly efficient hydrogen evolution. Angew Chem Int Ed 53:13934–13939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zheng Y, Jiao Y, Zhu Y, Li LH, Han Y, Chen Y, Du A, Jaroniec M, Qiao SZ (2014) Hydrogen evolution by a metal-free electrocatalysts. Nat Commun 5:3783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zheng Y, Jiao Y, Jaroniec M, Qiao SZ (2015) Advancing the electrochemistry of the hydrogen-evolution reaction through combining experiment and theory. Angew Chem Int Ed 54:52–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sudesh Kumar
    • 1
  • Raghava Reddy Kakarla
    • 2
  • Ch. Venkata Reddy
    • 3
  • Enamul Haque
    • 4
  • Veera Sadhu
    • 5
  • S. Naveen
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryBanasthali University, Banasthali VidyapithVanasthaliIndia
  2. 2.School of Chemical & Biomolecular EngineeringThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  3. 3.School of Mechanical EngineeringYeungnam UniversityGyeongsanSouth Korea
  4. 4.School of Medicine and Centre for Molecular and Medical ResearchDeakin UniversityWaurn PondsAustralia
  5. 5.School of Physical SciencesBanasthali University, Banasthali VidyapithVanasthaliIndia
  6. 6.School of Basic SciencesJain UniversityBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations