Air pollution poses major threat to premature mortality (Lelieveld, Evans, Fnais, Giannadaki, Pozzer, Nature, 525:367–371, (2015), ) but its levels over \(80\%\) of cities are unhealthy (WHO: WHOs urban ambient air pollution database - update 2016. In: World Health Organization (2016). www.who.int/phe, Cited 1 July 2017, ). Although large-scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are the common research solutions to detailed air quality studies (Russell, Annu Rev Energy Environ, 22:537–588, (1997), ), analytical models offer quick screening tools that are surrogates for prohibitively expensive sensitivity tests in practice (Moonen, Allegrini, Environ Model Softw, 72:77–91, (2015), ). The Gaussian models, which are analytical tools developed based on open terrain and chemically inert pollutants, have been well received in the industry for decades (Roberts, Proc Roy Soc Lond A, 104:640–654, (1923), ). Their results for chemically reactive pollutants over urban areas must be interpreted cautiously.
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The second and last authors thank the Hong Kong Research Grant Council (RGC) for financially supporting their study through the Hong Kong PhD Fellowship (HKPF) Scheme. This research is conducted in part using the research computing facilities and/or advisory services offered by Information Technology Services (ITS), The University of Hong Kong (HKU). Technical support from Ms. Lilian Y. L. Chan, Mr. W. K. Kwan and Mr. Bill H. T. Yau is appreciated. This project is partly supported by the General Research Fund (GRF) of RGC 17205314.
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