Advertisement

An Assessment of the Vulnerability and Response of Coastal Communities to Climate Change Impact in Lindi Region, Southern Tanzania

  • Salome B. Misana
  • Verdiana T. Tilumanywa
Chapter
Part of the Springer Climate book series (SPCL)

Abstract

The main objective of this research was to provide an understanding of how the coastal communities are changing in their vulnerability to climate change and how the livelihood systems are adapting to the change and the implications on coastal resource use, governance and management. Specifically, the study sought to assess the current trends in climate change and variability and their impacts on the livelihoods of the coastal communities; examine the vulnerability of the coastal communities to climate change and other stressors; investigate how local communities are coping with multiple stresses caused by climate change and variability; and examine the implications of the community responses to coastal resource use, governance and management. The study was conducted in eight villages in Lindi Rural and Kilwa Districts, Lindi Region. The “household” was used as a sampling unit. A total of 223 households (7.7% of the total households 2892) were randomly selected as the study sample. Household surveys, key informant interviews and FGDs were conducted to get information on the perception of the local community on climate change and its impacts on individual and community livelihood systems. Findings show that climate change and variability is a reality in the two districts. The data point to increasing temperatures and decreasing rainfall trends. Climate variations that have been taking place have inflicted heavy losses in agriculture, which is the main livelihood source for the majority of the population in the study villages. The high poverty levels in the two districts have worsened the situation, with individual households and communities becoming more vulnerable to climate change impacts. A majority of the poor and intermediate households have been experiencing food shortages for almost half of the year, and sometimes deaths have been reported, as was the case during the severe drought of 1997.

References

  1. Arnell NW, Brown S, Gosling SN et al (2014) The impacts of climate change across the globe: a multi-sectoral assessment. Clim Chang.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-014-1281-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bates BC, Kundzewicz ZW, Wu S et al (eds) (2008) Climate Change and Water. Technical paper of the IPCC. IPCC Secretariat, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  3. Benjaminsen TA, Bryceson I, Maganga F (2008) Climate change in Tanzania: trends, policies and initiatives. Norwegian University of Life SciencesGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown PR, Jacobs B and Leith P (2012) Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation to aid investment in NR managercapacity at a range of scales. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 184(12):7207–7220Google Scholar
  5. Collier P, Conway G, Venables T (2008) Climate change in Africa. Oxf Rev Econ Policy 24(2):337–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Devisscher T (2010) Ecosystem-based Adaptation in Tanzania: the role of ecosystems for human well-being and climate adaptation. DFID, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Dolan A, Walker I (2004) Understanding the vulnerability of coastal communities to climate change related risks. J Coastal Research. SI 39. ICS 2004 Proceedings, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  8. Grains Research and Development Corporation (2011) Climate variability and climate change – what’s the difference? http://www.climatekelpie.com
  9. Gwambene B (2007) Climate change and variability adaptation strategies and its implication on land resources in Rungwe district, Tanzania. Dissertation, Institute of Resource Assessment University of Dares SalaamGoogle Scholar
  10. Hannah L, Midgley GF, Millar D (2002) Climate change-integrated conservation strategies. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 11:485–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. ICSU and ISSC (2015) Review of sustainable development goals: the science perspective. International Council for Science, ParisGoogle Scholar
  12. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2014a) Climate change 2014. Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Group I, II, and III to the Fifth Assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. IPCC Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/ (Accessed 26/5/2015)
  13. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2014b) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. http://www.ipcc.ch/report.ar5/wg2/. (Accessed 10/5/2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007a) Climate change 2007: synthesis report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change. IPCC, Geneva, SwitzerlandCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007b) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2001) Climate change 2001: impacts, vulnerability and adaptation. Contribution of Working Groups II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change. Cambridge University Press, Port ChesterGoogle Scholar
  17. Jacobs B, Nelson R, Kuruppu N and Leith P (2015) An adaptive capacity guide book: Assessing, building andevaluating the capacity of communities to adapt in a changing climate. Southern Slopes Climate Change AdaptationResearch Partnership (SCARP), University of Technology Sydney and University of Tasmania.Hobart Tasmania.Accessed from https://opus.lib.uts.edu.au/handle/10453/36221 on 17th December 2018.
  18. Juana JS, Kahaka Z, Okurut F (2013) Farmers’ perceptions and adaptations to climate change in Sub-Sahara Africa: a synthesis of empirical studies and implications for public policy in African agriculture. J Agric Sci 5:121–135Google Scholar
  19. Kebede AS, Brown S, Nicholls RJ (2010) Synthesis report: the implications of climate change and sea level rise in Tanzania – The Coastal Zone. Report submitted to Global Climate Adaptation Partnership (GCAP). http://economics-of-cc-intanzania.org/images/Tanzania_Synthesis-Report_Final_updated-17Nov2010_2_.pdf. Accessed 13 August 2015
  20. Kiage LM, Liu K (2006) Late quaternary paleoenvironmental changes in East Africa: a review of multiproxy evidence from palynology, lake sediments, and associated recors. Prog Phys Geogr 30(5):633–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kothari CR (2004) Research methodology and techniques. Age International Ltd., New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  22. Lawton JH (2010) Adapting institutions to climate change. Twenty-Eighth Report. The Crown Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, LondonGoogle Scholar
  23. Lyimo JG, Kangalawe RYM (2010) Vulnerability and adaptive strategies to the impact of climate change and variability. The case of rural households in semi-arid Tanzania. Environ Econ 1:89–97Google Scholar
  24. Majule A, Kauzeni A, Shishira S et al (2009) Assessment of climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptive capacity of agricultural systems in Nzega District, Tanzania. In: Kangalawe R, Mung’ong’o C, Yanda P (eds) People’s perceptions and community responses to climate change and variability. Selected cases from Tanzania. Institute of Resources Assessment, University of Dar es SalaamGoogle Scholar
  25. Malimbwi RE, Shemwetta DTK, Zahabu E et al (2005) Kilwa District Forestry Inventory Report. FORCONSULT / Forestry and Beekeeping Division, Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism.Google Scholar
  26. Milledge SAH, Gelvas IK, Ahrends A (2007) Forestry, governance and national development: lessons learned from a logging boom in Southern Tanzania. TRAFFIC East/Southern Africa /Tanzania Development Partners Group / Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaGoogle Scholar
  27. Mwakalinga H (2014) A study on agribusiness opportunuties related to gas/oil activities in Lindi and Mtwara. https://docplayer.net/30266868-Astudy-on-agribusiness-opportunities-related-to-gas-oil-activities-in-lindi-and-mtwara.html
  28. Mwebaza R (2010) The impact of climate change in East Africa. In: Mwebaza R, Louis JK (eds) Environmental governance and climate change in Africa: legal perspectives. Monograph 167 November 2009. Institute of Security Studies, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  29. Miya M, Ball SMJ, Nelson FD (2012) Drivers of deforestation and forest degradation in Kilwa District; Mpingo Conservation and Development Initiative, LindiGoogle Scholar
  30. Oxfam International (2008) Survival of the fittest: pastoralism and climate change in East Africa. www.oxfam.org/.../bp116-pastoralism-climate-change-eafrica-0808.pdf.
  31. Salami AT (2010) Climate change mitigation and adaptation options: the Nigerian experience. A paper presented at the International Conference on Energy and Climate Change (ICECC) held on 29–30 November, 2010 at Constantia Hotel, Airport Road, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Organized by the National Centre for Energy and Environmnet (NCEE) and Energy Commission of Nigeria (ECN), in collaboration with ENVIROFLY Consulting, UK. http:ncee.org.ng/Centre-archives/workshops-a-seminars/doc_download/34-climate change-miti&retGoogle Scholar
  32. Shemsanga C, Omambia A, Gu Y (2010) The cost of climate change in Tanzania: impacts and adaptations.. J American Science. Marsland Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Smit B, Pilifosova O (2003) From adaptation to adaptive capacity and vulnerability reduction. In: Smith JB, Klein RJT, Huq S (eds) Climate change, adaptive capacity and development. World Scientific, River Edge, pp 1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sokoni C (2014) The role of medium towns in the provision of agricultural services in Rungwe Mountain area. In: de la Masseliere C, Calas B (eds) A la Croisee du transect: De la Montagne a la ville Eloged’une Geographie tropical Traversiere. Presses universitaires du Mirail, Toulouse, pp 245–258Google Scholar
  35. Sulienam HM, Ahmed AGM (2013) Monitoring changes in pastoral resources in Eastern Sudan: a synthesis of remote sensing and local knowledge. Pastoralism Res Policy Pract 3:22–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. TFCG (2012) Improving agricultural practices in the context of REDD readiness in Lindi Rural District, Tanzania. A review of current agricultural practices and recommendations for project interventionsGoogle Scholar
  37. Tetra Tech ARD (2013) Uganda climate change vulnerability assessment report. Report prepared for USAIDGoogle Scholar
  38. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (2008) Climate change: impacts, vulnerabilities and adaptation in developing countries. UNFCCC Secretariat, BonnGoogle Scholar
  39. United Republic of Tanzania (2007) National Adaptation Programme of Action for Tanzania (NAPA). Division of Environment, Prime Minister’s Office, Dar es SalaamGoogle Scholar
  40. United Republic Tanzania (2013) 2012 Population and Housing Census Population Distribution by Administrative Areas. National Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Finance, Dar es Salaam and Office of Chief Government Statistician, President’s Office, Finance, Economy and Development Planning, ZanzibarGoogle Scholar
  41. United Republic of Tanzania (2011) Lindi Region Socio-economic Profile. Government Printers, Dar es SalaamGoogle Scholar
  42. United Republic of Tanzania (2003) Initial National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Vice President’s Office, Dar es SalaamGoogle Scholar
  43. Yanda PZ, Mubaya CP (2011) Managing a changing climate in Africa: local level vulnerabilities and adaptation experiences. Mkuki na Nyota Ltd., Dar es SalaamGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Salome B. Misana
    • 1
  • Verdiana T. Tilumanywa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of Dar es SalaamDar es SalaamTanzania

Personalised recommendations