• Christiana SpensEmail author


The concluding chapter outlines the main insights that emerged from the research, and how they support the argument that the portrayal and punishment of terrorists in the Western media perpetuates neo-Orientalist attitudes, due to the visual connections between these modern images and past representations of iconic, punished villains, used as part of a wider scapegoating ritual that requires remembrance and emotional engagement with cultural history and mythology to function. It also points out why these findings matter, by explaining that the research presents various issues for democratic societies, such as conflict between freedom of press and justice based on equality and fairness, and the role of culture and the media in society today.


Neo-Orientalism Fourth estate Culture Media Terrorists Representation 


Books and Journal Articles

  1. Mann, Michael, The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.Google Scholar
  2. Shelley, Percy Bysshe, A Defense of Poetry, 1891.
  3. Smith, Philip, Punishment and Culture. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2008.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of International RelationsUniversity of St AndrewsSt AndrewsUK

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