Advertisement

Community-Based Mapping Methodology for Climate Change Adaptation: A Case Study of Quarry Road West Informal Settlement, Durban, South Africa

  • Bahle Mazeka
  • Catherine Sutherland
  • Sibongile Buthelezi
  • Duduzile Khumalo
Chapter

Abstract

Participatory community-based mapping (PCBM) is a social learning process that develops understanding, knowledge and skills that empower and capacitate vulnerable communities to engage with the state and other actors around future development challenges including climate change. It therefore can provide a valuable platform to negotiate and design climate adaptation interventions. This chapter presents a PCBM process undertaken in Quarry Road West informal settlement, Durban South Africa, to build research capacity and co-produce knowledge to address climate risks. It reflects on the methodology developed to produce an inclusionary risk map, which included building the research capacity of local residents to identify new pathways for climate adaptation.

References

  1. Al-Kodmany, K. (2002). GIS and the Artist: Shaping the Image of a Neighbourhood Through Participatory Environmental Design. In W. J. Craig, T. M. Harris, & D. Weiner (Eds.), Community Participation and Geographic Information Systems (pp. 320–329). London and New York: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  2. Black, R., Bennett, S. R. G., Thomas, S. M., & Beddington, J. R. (2011). Climate Change: Migration as Adaptation. Nature, 478(7370), 447–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Braathen, E., Dupont, V. J.-L., & Sutherland, C. (2016). Situating the Politics of Slum Within the ‘Urban Turn’. In V. Dupont, D. Jordhus-Lier, C. Sutherland, & B. Einar (Eds.), The Politics of Slums in the Global South: Urban Informality in Brazil, India, South Africa and Peru (pp. 1–29). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Brown, G., & Kyttä, M. (2014). Key Issues and Research Priorities for Public Participation GIS (PPGIS): A Synthesis Based on Empirical Research. Applied Geography, 46(1), 122–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burton, I., Diringer, E., & Smith, J. (2006). Adaptation to Climate Change: International Policy Options. Copenhagen: Pew Center on Global Climate Change.Google Scholar
  6. CCAA. (2012). Adaptation: Climate Change Adaption in Africa. Ottawa: International Development Resource Centre.Google Scholar
  7. Chambers, R. (2006). Participatory Mapping and Geographic Information Systems: Whose Map? Who Is Empowered and Who Disempowered? Who Gains and Who Loses. The Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries, 25(2), 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cook, J., Oreskes, N., Anderegg, W. R. L., Verheggen, B., Maibach, E. W., Carlton, J. S., et al. (2016). Consensus on Consensus: A Synthesis of Consensus Estimates on Human-Caused Global Warming. Environmental Research Letters, 11(1), 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Corbett, J., & Keller, P. (2006). Using Community Information Systems to Communicate Traditional Knowledge Embedded in the Landscape. Participatory Learning and Action, 54, 21–27.Google Scholar
  10. Craig, W. J., Harris, T. M., & Weiner, D. (Eds.). (2002). Community Participation and Geographic Information Systems. London: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  11. Creswell, J. W., Plano Clark, V. L., Gutmann, M. L., & Hanson, W. E. (2003). Advanced Mixed Methods Research Designs. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddlie (Eds.), Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and Behavioral Research (pp. 209–240). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  12. de Sherbinin, A., Chai-Onn, T., Jaiteh, M., Mara, V., Pistolesi, L., Schnarr, E., et al. (2015). Data Integration for Climate Vulnerability Mapping in West Africa. International Journal of Geo-Information, 4, 2561–2582.Google Scholar
  13. Doodman, D., & Mitlin, D. (2013). Challenges for Community-Based Adaptation: Discovering the Potential for Transformation. Journal of International Development, 25(1), 640–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Edwards, J., Gustafsson, M., & Naslund-Landenmark, B. (2007). Handbook for Vulnerability Mapping. Stockholm: Swedish Rescue Services Agency.Google Scholar
  15. Elwood, S. (2002). GIS Use in Community Planning: A Multidimensional Analysis of Empowerment. Environment and Planning, 34(5), 905–922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. eThekwini Municipality. (2016/2017). Spatial Development Framework Report. Durban: eThekwini Municipality Corporate Policy Unit.Google Scholar
  17. Farouk, B. R., & Owusu, M. (2012). “If in Doubt, Count”: The Role of Community-Driven Enumerations in Blocking Eviction in Old Fadama, Accra. Environment and Urbanization, 24(1), 47–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fernandes, E. (2006). Updating the Declaration of the Rights of Citizens in Latin America: Constructing the “Right to the City” in Brazil. In UNESCO (Ed.), International Public Debates: Urban Policies and the Right to the City (pp. 40–53). Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  19. Gaillard, J.-C., & Maceda, E. A. (2009). Participatory Three-Dimensional Mapping for Disaster Risk Reduction. In H. Reid, et al. (Eds.), Community-Based Adaptation to Climate Change (pp. 109–118). London: The International Institute for Environment and Development.Google Scholar
  20. Gaillard, C., Monteil, C., Perrillat-Collomb, A., Chaudhary, S., Chaudhary, M., Chaudhary, O., & Cadag, J. R. D. (2013). Participatory 3-Dimension Mapping: A Tool for Encouraging Multi-caste Collaboration to Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction. Applied Geography, 45, 158–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Green, J. C., & Carcelli, V. J. (1997). Advances in Mixed-Method Evaluation: The Challenges and Benefits of Integrating Diverse Paradigms (74th ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  22. Hagen, E. (2010). Mapping Change: Community Information Empowerment in Kibera. Innovations, 6(1), 69–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Haklay, M. (2013). Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information—Overview and Typology of Participation. In E. S. Sui & D. Z. M. Goodchild (Eds.), Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge: Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) (pp. 105–122). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  24. Harris, L., & Hazen, H. D. (2006). Power of Maps: (Counter)-Mapping for Conservation. ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies, 4(1), 99–130.Google Scholar
  25. Huchzermeyer, M. (2011). Cities with ‘Slums’: From Informal Settlement Eradication to a Right to the City in Africa. Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press.Google Scholar
  26. IPCC. (2007). Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. In O. R. Davidson, P. R. Bosch, R. Dave, & L. A. Meyer (Eds.), Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK and New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  27. IPCC. (2014). Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. In O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, et al. (Eds.), Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Kathlene, L. (2007). Cognitive Mapping and GIS for Community-Based Resource Identification. In B. N. Hilton (Ed.), Emerging Spatial Information Systems and Applications (pp. 326–350). Hershey, PA: Idea Group.Google Scholar
  29. Klug, N., & Vawda, S. (2009). Upgrading of Informal Settlements: An Assessment with Reference to the Application of ‘Breaking New Ground’ in Cape Town and Johannesburg. Town and Regional Planning, 54, 37–49.Google Scholar
  30. Lydon, M. 2003. Community Mapping: The Recovery (and Discovery) of Our Common Ground. Geomatica, 57 (1999–2003 Anniversary Issue)—Cartography in Canada.Google Scholar
  31. Orach, C. D. (2009). Climate Change and Migration: Effects and Adaptation Mechanisms in Africa. In H. Besada & N. K. Sewankambo (Eds.), Climate Change in Africa: Adaptation, Mitigation and Governance Challenges (pp. 31–36). Waterloo: Creative Commons Corporation.Google Scholar
  32. Pain, R. (2004). Social Geography: Participatory Research. Progress in Human Geography, 28(5), 652–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Parker, B. (2006). Constructing Community Through Maps? Power and Praxis in Community Mapping. Professional Geographer, 58(4), 470–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pelling, M. (2003). The Vulnerability of Cities: Natural Disasters and Social Resilience. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  35. Piccolella, A. (2013). Participatory Mapping for Adaptation to Climate Change: The Case of Boe Boe, Solomon Islands. Knowledge Management for Development Journal, 9(1), 24–36.Google Scholar
  36. Qin, D., Plattner, G. K., Tignor, M., Allen, S. K., Boschung, J., Nauels, A., et al. (2014). Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis (T. Stocker, Ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Rambaldi, G., Bugna, S., Tiangco, A., & de Vera, D. (2002). Bringing the Vertical Dimension to the Negotiating Table: Preliminary Assessment of a Conflict Resolution Case in the Philippines. ASEAN Biodiversity, 2(1), 17–26.Google Scholar
  38. Rantanen, H. (2006). From Local Knowledge Mapping to a Learning Planning Process. Vienna, European Journal of Planning.Google Scholar
  39. Reid, H., Alam, M., Berger, R., Cannon, T., Huq, S., & Milligan, A. (2009). Community-Based Adaptation to Climate Change: An Overview. In H. Reid, et al. (Eds.), Community-Based Adaptation to Climate Change (pp. 11–34). London: International Institute for Environment and Development.Google Scholar
  40. Revi, A. (2008). Climate Change Risk: An Adaptation and Mitigation Agenda for Indian Cities. Environment and Urbanisation, 20(1), 207–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rifkin, S., & Pridmore, P. (2001). Partners in Planning: Information, Participation and Empowerment. London: TALC and Macmillan Education.Google Scholar
  42. Roberts, D., & O’Donoghue, S. (2013). Urban Environmental Challenges and Climate Change Action in Durban. South Africa, Environment & Urbanization, 25(2), 299–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Roberts, D., Boon, R., Diederichs, N., Douwes, E., Govender, N., McInnes, A., & McLean, C. (2012). Exploring Ecosystem-Based Adaptation in Durban, South Africa: “Learning-by-Doing” at the Local Government Coal Face. Environment and Urbanization, 24(1), 167–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shorkey, C., Windsor, L., & Spence, R. (2009). Systematic Assessment of Culturally Competent Chemical Dependence Treatment Services for African Americans. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 8(1), 113–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Simon, D., & Leck, H. (2017). Urban Dynamics and the Challenges of Global Environmental Change in the South. In S. Parnell & S. Oldfield (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook on Cities of the Global South (pp. 613–628). Oxon and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  46. Skovdal, M., & Cornish, F. (2015). Qualitative Research for Development: A Guide for Practitioners. Rugby: Practical Action Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sutherland, C. (2016). Community Mapping Exercise in Ocean Drive-In Informal Settlement, Durban. In V. Dupont, D. Jordhus-Lier, C. Sutherland, & E. Braathen (Eds.), The Politics of Slums in the Global South: Urban Informality in Brazil, India, South Africa and Peru. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. Sutherland, C., & Mazeka, B. (forthcoming). Ecosystem Services in South Africa. In J. Knight & Rogerson (Eds.), The Geography of South Africa, World Regional Geography Book Series. New York: Springer Nature.Google Scholar
  49. Tanner, T., Mitchell, T., Polack, E., & Guenther, B. (2009). Urban Governance for Adaptation: Assessing Climate Change Resilience in Ten Asian Cities (IDS Working Paper No. 315). Brighton: Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Taylor, A., Cartwright, A., & Sutherland, C. (2014). Institutional Pathways for Local Climate Adaptation: A Comparison of Three South African Municipalities (Focales Series No. 18). Agence Françoise De Developpmente.Google Scholar
  51. UN-Habitat. (2016). World Cities Report: Urbanisation and Development: Emerging Futures. Nairobi: UN-Habitat.Google Scholar
  52. Van Aalst, M. K., Cannon, T., & Burton, I. (2008). Community Level Adaptation to Climate Change: The Potential Role of Participatory Community Risk Assessment. Global Environmental Change, 18, 165–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Vogel, C., Scott, D., Culwick, C. E., & Sutherland, C. (2016). Environmental Problem-Solving in South Africa: Harnessing Creative Imaginaries to Address ‘Wicked’ Challenges and Opportunities. South African Geographical Journal, 98(3), 515–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Warner, C. (2015). Participatory Mapping: A Literature Review of Community-Based Research. New York: Spring.Google Scholar
  55. Wiese, M., Yosko, I., & Donnat, M. (2004). Participatory Mapping as a Tool for Public Health Decision-Making in Nomadic Settings. A Case Study Among Dazagada Pastoralists of the Bahr-el Ghazal Region in Chad. Médecine Tropicale: Revue Du Corps De Santé Colonial, 64(5), 452–463.Google Scholar
  56. Windsor, L. C. (2013). Using Concept Mapping in Community-Based Participatory Research: A Mixed Methods Approach. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 7(3), 274–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wisner, B., Gaillard, J., & Kelman, I. (2012). The Routledge Handbook of Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bahle Mazeka
    • 1
  • Catherine Sutherland
    • 1
  • Sibongile Buthelezi
    • 1
  • Duduzile Khumalo
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Built Environment and Development StudiesUniversity of KwaZulu-NatalDurbanSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations