Advertisement

Adaptation Governance and Building Resilience in the Face of Climate Change in African Cities: Policy Responses and Emerging Practices from Accra

  • Michael Addaney
Chapter

Abstract

Adaptation governance and building resilience in the face of climate change remain critical in African cities. However, in the absence of practical examples, this ideal could be considered a myth to many and most importantly, to cities that would otherwise be required to take pragmatic steps. This chapter discusses and provides new perspectives on cities and climate change adaptation in Africa, offering a novel insight on how an African city is adapting to flooding and water-related risks. It concludes that effective metropolitan adaptation governance will engender a long-term vision for the city with effective urban and land use planning, including risk management. It further advocates that emphasis should be placed on key factors for urban resilience such as land management, information systems and provision of infrastructure.

References

  1. Accra Metropolitan Assembly. (2018). Preliminary Resilience Assessment: Summary. Accra: AMA. Retrieved from http://www.100resilientcities.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Accra-PRA-report-summary-06-spreads.pdf.
  2. Addaney, M., Boshoff, E., & Nyarko, M. G. (2018). Protection of Environmental Assets in Urban Africa: Regional and Sub-Regional Human Rights and Practical Environmental Protection Mechanisms. Australian Journal of Human Rights, 24(2), 182–200.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1323238X.2018.1480235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AMA Convenes Partners for Release of Preliminary Resilience Assessment 3 News, April 6, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.3news.com/ama-convenes-partners-for-release-of-preliminary-resilience-assessment/.
  4. Amoako, C. (2016). Brutal Presence or Convenient Absence: The Role of the State in the Politics of Flooding in Informal Accra, Ghana. Geoforum, 77, 5–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amoako, C., & Frimpong Boamah, E. F. (2014). The Three-Dimensional Causes of Flooding in Accra, Ghana. International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development, 7(1), 109–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Antrobus, D. (2011). Smart Green Cities: From Modernization to Resilience? Urban Research and Practice, 4(2), 8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Asumadu-Sarkodie, S., et al. (2015). Impact Analysis of Flood in Accra, Ghana. Advances in Applied Science Research, 6(9), 53–78.Google Scholar
  8. Atapattu, S. A. (2016). Human Rights Approaches to Climate Change: Challenges and Opportunities. New York and London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Bauer, A., Feichtinger, J., & Steurer, R. (2012). The Governance of Climate Change Adaptation in 10 OECD Countries: Challenges and Approaches. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 14(3), 279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beall, J., & Fox, S. (2007). Urban Poverty and Development in the 21st Century: Towards an Inclusive Sustainable World. London: Oxfam GB.Google Scholar
  11. Bevir, M. (2011). The SAGE Handbook of Governance. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  12. Bulkeley, H. (2005). Reconfiguring Environmental Governance: Towards a Politics of Scales and Networks. Political Geography, 24, 875–890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carmin, J., Nadkarni, N., & Rhie, C. (2012). Progress and Challenges in Urban Climate Adaptation Planning: Results of a Global Survey. Cambridge, MA: MIT.Google Scholar
  14. Carter, J. G., Cavan, G., Connelly, A., Guy, S., Handley, J., & Kazmierczak, A. (2015). Climate Change and the City: Building Capacity for Urban Adaptation. Progress in Planning, 95, 1–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Douglas, I., Alam, K., Maghenda, M., Mcdonnell, Y., Mclean, L., & Campbell, J. (2008). Unjust Waters: Climate Change, Flooding and the Urban Poor in Africa. Environment and Urbanization, 20, 187–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Frick-Trzebitzky, F. (2017). Crafting Adaptive Capacity: Institutional Bricolage in Adaptation to Urban Flooding in Greater Accra. Water Alternatives, 10(2), 625–647.Google Scholar
  17. Fields, B. (2009). From Green Dots to Greenways: Planning in the Age of Climate Change in Post-Katrina New Orleans. Journal of Urban Design, 14(3), 20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ghana Statistical Service. (2014). Ghana Living Standards Survey Round 6 (GLSS - 6)—Main Report. Retrieved from http://www.statsghana.gov.gh/docfiles/glss6/GLSS6_Main%20Report.pdf.
  19. Ghana Statistical Service. (2017). Population Projections. Data Production Unit. Retrieved from http://www.statsghana.gov.gh/docfiles/2010phc/Projected%20population%20by%20sex%202010%20-%202016.pdf.
  20. Gichere, S. K., Sikoyo, G. M., & Saidi, A. M. (2011). Climate Change and Its Effect on Cities of Eastern African Countries. In B. Yuen & A. Kumssa (Eds.), Climate Change and Sustainable Urban Development in Africa and Asia. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  21. Government of Ghana. (2017). Enhancing Urban Resilience in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area. City Strength, Resilient Cities Program. Accra: Ministries of Environment, Science, Technology and Innovation; Local Government and Rural Development/Global Practice on Social, Urban, Rural and Resilience of the World Bank Group.Google Scholar
  22. Hope, K. R. (2011). Climate Change in the Context of Urban Development in Africa. In B. Yuen & A. Kumssa (Eds.), Climate Change and Sustainable Urban Development in Africa and Asia. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  23. Hunt, A., & Watkiss, P. (2011). Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation In Cities: A Review of the Literature. Climatic Change, 104(1), 13–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2012). Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2014). Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Summary for Policymakers. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Inveen, C., & Ratcliffe, R. (2017, August 16). Sierra Leone Mudslide: President Calls for Urgent Help as Search Continues. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2017/aug/15/sierra-leone-mudslide-flooding-freetown-national-emergency.
  27. IPCC. (2001). Third Assessment Report: Climate Change 2001. Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability.Google Scholar
  28. IPCC. (2007). Climate Change 2007: Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Summary for Policy Makers. Glossary. Retrieved from https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg2/ar4_wg2_full_report.pdf.
  29. IPCC. (2018a, March 5–7). Cities and Climate Change Science Conference (Edmonton, Canada). Retrieved from https://citiesipcc.org/.
  30. IPCC. (2018b). An IPCC Special Report on the Impacts of Global Warming of 1.5 oC above Pre-industrial Levels and Related Global Greenhouse Gas Emission Pathways, in the Context of Strengthening the Global Response to the Threat of Climate Change, Sustainable Development and Efforts to Eradicate Poverty: Summary for Policymakers. (Geneva: IPCC). Retrieved from http://ipcc.ch/report/sr15/.
  31. Karley, N. K. (2009). Flooding and Physical Planning in Urban Areas in West Africa: Situational Analysis of Accra, Ghana. Theor Empirical Res Urban Manage, 13, 25–41.Google Scholar
  32. Klein, R. J. T., Nicholls, R. J., & Thomalia, F. (2003). Resilience to Natural Hazards: How Useful is this Concept? Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards, 5(1–2), 35–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Koski, C. (2014). Mitigating Global Warming in Global Cities: Comparing Participation and Climate Change Policies of C40 Cities. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 16(5), 490.Google Scholar
  34. Leck, H., & Simon, D. (2018). Local Authority Responses to Climate Change in South Africa: The Challenges of Transboundary Governance. Sustainability, 10(2542), 1–18.Google Scholar
  35. Lin, J. (2018). Governing Climate Change: Global Cities and Transnational Lawmaking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mayer, B. (2018). The International Law on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. McEvoy, D., Lindley, S., & Handley, J. (2006). Adaptation and Mitigation in Urban Areas: Synergies and Conflicts. In Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers—Municipal Engineer, 159(4), 185–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. MESTI. (2016). June 3 2015 Floods in Accra: Assessment Summary (Draft Report).Google Scholar
  39. Miller, F., et al. (2010). Resilience and Vulnerability: Complementary or Conflicting Concepts? Ecology and Society, 15(3), 11. Retrieved from https://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss3/art11/.
  40. Norris, F. H., Stevens, S. P., Pfefferbaum, B., Wyche, K. F., & Pfefferbaum, R. L. (2008). Community Resilience as a Metaphor, Theory, Set of Capacities and Strategy for Disaster Readiness. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41, 127–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. OECD. (2008, October 9–10). Competitive Cities in a Changing Climate: Introductory Issue Paper. OECD International Conference, ‘Competitive Cities and Climate Change’, 2nd Annual Meeting of the OECD Roundtable 90 Strategy for Urban Development, Milan, Italy. OECD Directorate for Public Governance and Territorial Development. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/22/40/41446908.pdf.
  42. Okpala, D. (2009). Regional Overview of the Status of Urban Planning and Planning Practice in Anglophone (Sub-Saharan) African Countries. Retrieved from http://www.unhabitat.org/grhs/2009.
  43. Paavola, J., et al. (2006). Fair Adaptation to Climate Change. Ecological Economics, 56, 594–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pattberg, P., & Stripple, J. (2008). Beyond the Public and Private Divide: Remapping Transnational Climate Governance in the 21st Century. International Environmental Agreements, 8, 367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pielke, R. (1998). Rethinking the Role of Adaptation in Climate Policy. Global Environmental Change, 2, 159–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rain, D., Engstrom, R., Ludlow, C., & Antos, S. (2011). Accra Ghana: A City Vulnerable to Flooding and Drought-Induced Migration: Case Study Prepared for Cities and Climate Change. Accra: UN Habitat. Retrieved from http://www.unhabitat.org/grhs/2011.
  47. Rogers, K., et al. (2015). Valuing London’s Urban Forest: Results of London i-Tree Eco Project. London: Treeconomics.Google Scholar
  48. Sassen, S. (2012). Cities in a World Economy (4th ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  49. Sassen, S. (2013). A Focus on Cities Takes Us Beyond Existing Governance Frameworks. In J. Stiglitz & M. Kaldor (Eds.), The Quest for Security: Protection Without Protectionism and the Challenge of Global Governance. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Satterthwaite, D. (2008). Cities’ Contribution to Global Warming: Notes on the Allocation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Environment and Urbanization, 20(2), 539–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schipper, L. (2006). Conceptual History of Adaptation in the UNFCCC Process. Review of European Community and International Environmental Law, 150, 82–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Smith, D. (2015, June 5). Death Toll Rises in Accra Floods and Petrol Station Fire. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jun/05/death-toll-accra-floods-petrol-station-fire.
  53. Tyler, S., & Moench, M. (2012). A Framework for Urban Climate Resilience. Climate and Development, 4(4), 311–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. UNDP. (2007). Overview, Human Development Report 2007/08.Google Scholar
  55. UN-Habitat. (2009). Global Report on Human Settlements 2009: Planning Sustainable Cities. London and Nairobi: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  56. UNISDR. (2012). How to Make Cities more Resilient: A Handbook for Local Government Leaders. Geneva: Author.Google Scholar
  57. UN Social and Economic Affairs. (2014). World Urbanization Prospects. New York: The United Nations.Google Scholar
  58. UN SDG. 2015. Transforming our world: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. UNGA, October. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/70/1&Lang=E.
  59. UN Sustainable Development Goals. Online: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/?menu=1300.
  60. Van der Hoeven, M. (2012). Urban Energy Policy Design. Paris: International Energy Agency.Google Scholar
  61. Wardekker, J. A., de Jong, A., Knopp, J. M., & van der Sluijs, J. P. (2010). Operationalizing a Resilience Approach to Adapting a Delta to Uncertain Climate Changes. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 77, 987–998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Walker, B., et al. (2002). Resilience Management in Social-Ecological Systems: A Working Hypothesis for a Participatory Approach. Ecology and Society, 6(1), 14. Retrieved from http://www.consecol.org/vol6/iss1/art14/.
  63. Wilbanks, T. J., et al. (2007). Effects of Climate Change on Energy Production and Use in the United States. A Report by the US Climate Science Program and the sub-committee on Global Change Research. Department of Energy, Office of the Biological and Environmental Research, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  64. World Urban Campaign. (2012). Manifesto for Cities: The Urban Future We Want.Google Scholar
  65. Zurn, M., et al. (2010). Introduction. In H. Enderlein, S. Walti, & M. Zurn (Eds.), Handbook on Multi-Level Governance. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Addaney
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Institute of Environmental LawWuhan UniversityWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations