Advertisement

Blockchain-Based Internet Voting: Systems’ Compliance with International Standards

  • Jordi CucurullEmail author
  • Adrià Rodríguez-Pérez
  • Tamara Finogina
  • Jordi Puiggalí
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing book series (LNBIP, volume 339)

Abstract

Blockchain has emerged as the technology claiming to change the way services are delivered nowadays, from banking to public administrations. The field of elections, and specifically internet voting, is not an exception. As a distributed audit layer, it is expected that blockchain technology will provide more transparency to such services, while preventing that a simple agent can tamper with electoral electronic data. Elections require a challenging combination of privacy and integrity. However, a system that would store ballots in clear on a public blockchain, while transparent, would not comply with secret suffrage, one key principle for democratic elections. For this reason, the motivation of this paper is to assess the potential of blockchain technology in internet voting. To this end we analyse several blockchain-based internet voting systems and their degree of compliance against a set of commonly accepted properties of internet voting, namely those of the Council of Europe. This has allowed us to identify a set of common features and challenges on how blockchain can contribute to the conduct of e-enabled elections.

Keywords

Blockchain Privacy Verifiability e-Voting Council of Europe Survey 

References

  1. 1.
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
    Votem CastIron Whitepaper. https://www.votem.io/#whitePaper
  5. 5.
    XO.1 Secure Vote. https://secure.vote
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
    Agora. Agora - bringing our voting systems into the 21st century v0.2. https://agora.vote/Agora_Whitepaper_v0.2.pdf
  8. 8.
    Anand, A., McKibbin, M., Pichel, F.: Colored coins: bitcoin, blockchain, and land administration. Poverty the World Bank - Washington DC, 20–24 March 2017. http://cadasta.org/resources/white-papers/bitcoin-blockchain-land/
  9. 9.
    Barrat, J., Goldsmith, B.: Compliance with international standards: Norwegian e-vote project. Technical report, International Foundation for Electoral Systems, Norwegian E-Vote Project (2012)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bernhard, M., et al.: Public evidence from secret ballots. In: Krimmer, R., Volkamer, M., Braun Binder, N., Kersting, N., Pereira, O., Schürmann, C. (eds.) e-Vote-ID 2017. LNCS, vol. 10615, pp. 84–109. Springer, Cham (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-68687-5_6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Council of Europe. Protocol I to the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1952)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bundesverfassungsgericht (German Constitutional Court). Decision 2 BvC 3/07, 2 BvC 4/07, March 2009Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Croman, K., et al.: On scaling decentralized blockchains. In: Proceedings of 3rd Workshop on Bitcoin and Blockchain Research (2016)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Driza Maurer, A.: Updated European standards for e-voting. In: Krimmer, R., Volkamer, M., Braun Binder, N., Kersting, N., Pereira, O., Schürmann, C. (eds.) E-Vote-ID 2017. LNCS, vol. 10615, pp. 146–162. Springer, Cham (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-68687-5_9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission). Code of good practice on electoral matters - guidelines and explanatory report (2003)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Grabenwarter, C.: Report on the compatibility of remote voting and electronic voting with the standards of the council of Europe. Technical report, European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission) (2004)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lécuyer, Y.: Le droit à des élections libres. Editions du Conseil de l’Europe - Council of Europe Publishing (2014)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Driza Maurer, A.: Ten years council of Europe Rec(2004) 11: lessons learned and outlook. In: Krimmer, R., Volkamer, M. (eds.) 6th International Conference on Electronic Voting, Proceedings Electronic Voting 2014 (EVOTE 2014), pp. 111–117. e-Voting. CC GmbH, October 2014Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Driza Maurer, A.: Report on the scope and format of the update of Rec(2004)11. Technical report, Council of Europe (2015)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Neff, C.A.: A verifiable secret shuffle and its application to e-voting. In: Proceedings of the 8th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, CCS 2001, pp. 116–125. ACM, New York (2001)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nikitin, K., et al.: CHAINIAC: proactive software-update transparency via collectively signed skip chains and verified builds. In 26th USENIX Security Symposium (USENIX Security 2017), pp. 1271–1287. USENIX Association, Vancouver (2017)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Council of Europe. Recommendation CM/Rec (2017) 5 of the Committee of Ministers to member States on standards for e-voting (2017)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Council of Europe. Recommendation Rec (2004) 11 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on legal, operational and technical standards for e-voting (2004)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. Resolution 1590 (2007) - Secret ballot - European code of conduct on secret balloting, including guidelines for politicians, observers and voters (2007)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Puiggalí, J., Chóliz, J., Guasch, S.: Best practices in internet voting. In: NIST: Workshop on UOCAVA Remote Voting Systems, Washington DC, August 2010Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ruffing, T., Moreno-Sanchez, P., Kate, A.: CoinShuffle: practical decentralized coin mixing for bitcoin. In: Kutyłowski, M., Vaidya, J. (eds.) ESORICS 2014. LNCS, vol. 8713, pp. 345–364. Springer, Cham (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-11212-1_20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Scott, B.: How can crypto currency and blockchain technology play a role in building social and solidarity finance? In: UNRISD Working Paper, Geneva (2016)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stein, R., Wenda, G.: The council of Europe and e-voting: history and impact of Rec (2004) 11. In: Krimmer, R., Volkamer, M. (eds.) 6th International Conference on Electronic Voting: Verifying the Vote, EVOTE 2014, Lochau/Bregenz, Austria, 29–31 October 2014, pp. 1–6. IEEE (2014)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    The United Nations. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, December 1948Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    The United Nations General Assembly: International covenant on civil and political rights. Treaty Ser. 999, 171 (1966)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tomescu, A., Devadas, S.: Catena: efficient non-equivocation via bitcoin. In: 2017 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP), pp. 393–409, May 2017Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jordi Cucurull
    • 1
    Email author
  • Adrià Rodríguez-Pérez
    • 1
  • Tamara Finogina
    • 1
  • Jordi Puiggalí
    • 1
  1. 1.Scytl Secure Electronic Voting S.A.BarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations