Advertisement

Disparate Outcomes

  • Alessandra JerollemanEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter takes a closer look at a series of recent disasters in order to highlight the disparate outcomes that resulted from the trends and covered in the preceding chapters. These disaster events include Superstorm Sandy, Hurricane Maria, and Hurricane Harvey. Previous chapters provided multiple examples from Superstorm Sandy and Hurricane Katrina, but a more in-depth discussion of disparate outcomes is provided in this chapter. An analysis of available texts, narratives, and reports, coupled with academic literature, forms the basis for the contents of the chapter.

These examples align with the Vulnerability-Plus model through the intersection of the risk creation described in the preceding chapter with the socio-political framing of undeserving victims and complex policy systems coupled with implementation failures, all leading to reductions in collective efficacy and individual agency in the face of, and following, natural events such as Hurricane Katrina. Political economic restructuring, using the disaster as a catalyst, increases vulnerability, creating a dynamic cycle through the reduction of access to capitals and limitations in the exercise of individual agency. The resulting disparate outcomes include increases in poverty and economic hardship, the loss of public housing, unique challenges for renters, and displacement.

Keywords

Neoliberalism Disaster capitalism Disaster recovery Vulnerability Plus Disaster injustice 

References

  1. Burby, R. J. (2006). Hurricane Katrina and the Paradoxes of Government Disaster Policy: Bringing About Wise Governmental Decision for Hazardous Areas. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 604, 171–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Craig, T. (2018, June). Virgin Islands Hurricane Recovery Efforts Hobbled by Cash Shortage. The Washington Post.Google Scholar
  3. Ferris, D. (2018, April 19). How Puerto Rico Became the Worst Grid Disaster. E and E News.Google Scholar
  4. Flavelle, C. (2018, November 8). Hurricanes Highlight Failure to Enforce Flood Insurance Rules. Bloomberg.Google Scholar
  5. Hernandez, A. R. (2018, April 28). Sluggish Recovery from Hurricane Maria Reignites Calls for Puerto Rico’s Statehood, Independence. The Washington Post.Google Scholar
  6. Irfan, U. (2018, April 15). Puerto Rico’s Blackout Is Now the Second Largest on Record Worldwide. Retrieved from https://www.vox.com/2018/4/13/17229172/puerto-rico-blackout-hurricane-maria.
  7. Kamel, N. (2012). Social Marginalisation, Federal Assistance and Repopulation Patterns in the New Orleans Metropolitan Area Following Hurricane Katrina. Urban Studies, 49(14), 3211–3231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kelly, C., Costa, K., & Edelman, S. (2017, October 3). Safe, Strong, and Just Rebuilding After Hurricane Harvey, Irma, and Maria Recommendations. Center for American Progress.Google Scholar
  9. Lee, D. (2018). The Impact of Natural Disasters on Neighborhood Poverty Rate: A Neighborhood Change Perspective. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 00(0), 1–13.Google Scholar
  10. Melgar, M. E. L. (2018, May 11). Mapping Puerto Rico’s Hurricane Mitigation with Mobile Phone Data. City Lab.Google Scholar
  11. Norton, R., MacClune, K., Venkateswaran, K., & Szönyi, M. (2018). Houston and Hurricane Harvey: A Call to Action. Zurich, Switzerland: Zurich Insurance Company Ltd.Google Scholar
  12. Oxfam Research Report. (2018). Far from Recovery: Puerto Rico Six Months After Hurricane Maria.Google Scholar
  13. Reed, E. (2018, April 30). Immigrant Families Have Not Bounced Back from Hurricane Harvey. The Street.Google Scholar
  14. Scurfield, R. (2008). Post-Katrina Storm Disorder and Recovery in Mississippi More Than 2 Years Later. Traumatology, 14(2), 88–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Sloan, M., & Fowler, D. (2015). Lessons from Texas: 10 Years of Disaster Recovery Examined. Texas Appleseed.Google Scholar
  16. Sou, G., & Aponte-Gonzalez, F. (2017, December). Making Efforts Count After Irma and Maria: Household Relief and Recovery in Puerto Rico. University of Manchester, UK: Policy Brief.Google Scholar
  17. Vinik, D. (May 29, 2018). ‘People Just Give Up’: Low-Income Hurricane Victims Slam Federal Relief Programs.Google Scholar
  18. Zakour, M. J., Mock, N. B., & Kadetz, P. (2018). Editor’s Introduction: The Voices of the Barefoot Scholars. In M. J. Zakour, N. B. Mock, & P. Kadetz (Eds.), Creating Katrina, Rebuilding Resilience: Lessons from New Orleans on Vulnerability and Resiliency (pp. 3–23). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jacksonville State UniversityMetairieUSA

Personalised recommendations