• Robert E. Forbis Jr.


In 2000 as the BLM responded to the external pressures of presidential pressure, and often political appointee actions emphasizing domestic energy production, a conflict emerged between traditional subgovernment interest alliance of ranching and energy development. As an unintended consequence of the expansion of domestic energy production, energy development expanded onto split-estates—where property rights are severed between a privately owned surface estate and the federally owned and managed subsurface mineral estate—triggering conflicts that resulted in the disruption of the traditional subgovernment alliance between ranching and energy interests. The conflict grew over time as the energy industry—as well as the George W. Bush administration—sought to displace the ranching industry’s historical domination of the BLM and its land-use policy subgovernment.


Bureau of Land Management Subgovernment Ranching Energy Public policy Executive power Political conflict 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert E. Forbis Jr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA

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