Advertisement

Parental Psychiatric Disorders and Early Interaction: Dysregulation and Repair

  • Gisèle Apter
  • Emmanuel Devouche
Chapter

Abstract

The baby is today considered an active partner in its interactions with the environment, specifically with its parents. These interhuman relationships are essential to its emotional, affective, and psychomotor development (see Part 1). However, interactions can be altered by multiple factors, such as parental psychiatric disorders (see Chap.  5) and/or at-risk birth (see Chap.  7). The consequences of these alterations invite perinatal psychiatry to increase its focus on the interactive system. Unfortunately, up until now, this system has been insufficiently explored. What are the consequences for the infant when the interactive system fails at self and mutual regulation? As a dyadic system, mother-baby interactions must be understood synchronically but also diachronically, especially when the parent suffers from psychopathology (mental illness and/or personality/attachment disorder). In this chapter, we will explore the impact of adult psychiatric disorders on interactions and therefore the impact of the immediate environment on the rapidly developing infant.

Keywords

Interactive system Disruption Dysregulation Repair Mutuality Synchrony Neglect Rhythm 

References

  1. 1.
    Delavenne A, Gratier M, Devouche E (2013) Expressive timing in infant-directed singing between 3 and 6 months. Infant Behav Dev 36(1):1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tronick EZ, Brushweller-Stern N, Harrison AM, Lyons-Ruth K, Morgan AC, Nahum JP et al (1998) Dyadically expanded states of consciousness and the process of therapeutic change. Infant Ment Health J 19:290–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gratier M, Trevarthen C (2008) Musical narrative and motives for culture in mother-infant vocal interaction. J Conscious Stud 15(10–11):122–158Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tronick EZ (1989) Emotions and emotional communication in infants. Am Psychol 44(2):112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tronick EZ (2003) Things still to be done on the still-face effect. Infancy 4:451–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tronick EZ (2004) Why is connection with others so critical? Dyadic meaning making, messiness and complexity governed selective processes which co-create and expand individuals’ states of consciousness. Emotional Dev:293–315Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tronick EZ (2007) The neurobehavioral and social-emotional development of infants and children. Norton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tronick EZ, Beeghly M (2011) Infants’ meaning-making and the development of mental health problems. Am Psychol 66:107–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bruner JS (1990) Acts of meaning, vol 3. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gratier M, Apter-Danon G (2008) The improvised musicality of belonging: repetition and variation in mother-infant vocal interaction. In: Malloch S, Trevarthen C (eds) Communicative musicality: narratives of expressive gesture and being human. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 301–328Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Enlow MB, Egeland B, Blood EA, Wright RO, Wright RJ (2012) Interpersonal trauma exposure and cognitive development in children to age 8 years: a longitudinal study. J Epidemiol Community Health 66(11):1005–1010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Apter G, Bobin A, Genet MC, Gratier M, Devouche E (2017) Update on mental health of infants and children of parents affected with mental health issues. Curr Psychiatry Rep 19(10):72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Apter G, Devouche E, Gratier M, Valente M, Le Nestour A (2012) What lies behind postnatal depression: is it only a mood disorder. J Personal Disord 26(3):357–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Masten AS, Cicchetti D (2010) Developmental cascades. Dev Psychopathol 22(3):491–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shonkoff JP (2011) Protecting brains, not simply stimulating minds. Science 333(6045):982–983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Murray L (1992) The impact of postnatal depression on infant development. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 8(1):37–55Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Murray L, Halligan SL, Goodyer I, Herbert J (2010) Disturbances in early parenting of depressed mothers and cortisol secretion in offspring: a preliminary study. J Affect Disord 122:218–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lyons-Ruth K, Yellin C, Melnick S, Atwood G (2005) Expanding the concept of unresolved mental states: Hostile/Helpless states of mind on the adult attachment interview are associated with disrupted mother–infant communication and infant disorganization. Dev Psychopathol 17:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kumar R, Robson KM (1984) A prospective study of emotional disorders in childbearing women. Br J Psychiatry 144:35–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    O’Hara MW, Zerovski EM, Phillips LH (1990) Controlled prospective study of postnatal mood disorders: comparison of childbearing and non-childbearing women. J Abnorm Psychol 99:3–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    O’Hara MW, Swain A (1996) Rates and risk of post-partum depression-a meta-analysis. Int Rev Psychiatry 8:37–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dayan J, Baleyte J-M (2008) Dépressions périnatales. In: Dayan J (ed) Les dépressions périnatales. Evaluer et traiter, Coll. Médecine et psychothérapie, Paris/Masson, pp 21–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gelaye B, Rondon MB, Araya R, Williams MA (2016) Epidemiology of maternal depression, risk factors, and child outcomes in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet Psychiatry 3(10):973–982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Harvey ST, Pun PK (2007) Analysis of positive Edinburgh depression scale referrals to a consultation liaison psychiatry service in a two-year period. Int J Ment Health Nurs 16:161–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Reck C, Struben K, Backenstrass M (2008) Prevalence, onset and co-morbidity of postpartum anxiety and depressive disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand 118:459–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cox JL, Holden J (1994) Perinatal psychiatry. Use and misuse of the Edinburgh post-natal depression scale. Gaskel, LondonGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Paulson JF, Bazemore SD (2010) Prenatal and postpartum depression in fathers and its association with maternal depression: a meta-analysis. JAMA 303(19):1961–1969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Serhan N, Ege E, Ayrancı U, Kosgeroglu N (2013) Prevalence of postpartum depression in mothers and fathers and its correlates. J Clin Nurs 22(1–2):279–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fredriksen E, von Soest T, Smith L, Moe V (2018) Parenting stress plays a mediating role in the prediction of early child development from both parents’ perinatal depressive symptoms. J Abnorm Child Psychol:1–16Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Field T (1994) The effects of mother’s physical and emotional unavailability on emotion regulation. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 59:208–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wilson S, Durbin CE (2010) Effects of paternal depression on fathers’ parenting behaviors: a meta-analytic review. Clin Psychol Rev 30(2):167–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mezulis AH, Hyde JS, Clark R (2004) Father involvement moderates the effect of maternal depression during a child’s infancy on child behavior problems in kindergarten. J Fam Psychol 18(4):575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gressier F, Tabat-Bouher M, Cazas O, Hardy P (2015) Dépression paternelle du post-partum: revue de la littérature. Presse Med 44(4):418–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vameghi R, AKBARI SAA, Sajedi F, Sajjadi H, ALAVI H (2016) Path analysis association between domestic violence, anxiety, depression and perceived stress in mothers and children’s development. Iran J Child Neurol 10(4):36PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Murray L, Cooper PJ (1997) The role of infant and maternal factors in postpartum depression, mother-infant interaction and infant outcomes. In: Murray L, Cooper e PJ (eds) Postpartum depression and child development. The Guilford Press, New York/London, pp 111–135Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zárate-Guerrero G, Devouche E, Espinosa-Gómez MC, Apter G (2014) Évaluer les difficultés interactives entre une mère déprimée et son bébé de 3 mois au moyen de l’échelle GRMII de Fiori-Cowley et Murray. Neuropsychiatr Enfance Adolesc 62(1):47–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Putnam K, Robertson-Blackmore E, Sharkey K, Payne J, Bergink V, Munk-Olsen T et al (2015) Heterogeneity of postpartum depression: a latent class analysis. Lancet Psychiatry 2(1):59–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nagy E, Molnar P (2004) Homo imitans or homo provocans? Human imprinting model of neonatal imitation. Infant Behav Dev 27(1):54–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Winnicott DW (1960) The theory of the parent-infant relationship. Int J Psychoanal 41:585–595PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Crandell LE, Patrick MP, Hobson RP (2003) Still-face’interactions between mothers with borderline personality disorder and their 2-month-old infants. Br J Psychiatry 183(3):239–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Apter-Danon G, Candilis D (2005) A challenge for perinatal psychiatry: therapeutic management of maternal borderline personality disorder and their very young infants. Clin Neuropsychiatry 2(5):302–314Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Delavenne A, Gratier M, Devouche E, Apter-Danon G (2008) Phrasing and fragmented time in “pathological” mother-infant vocal interaction. Mus Sci, Special Issue:47–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gratier M, Devouche E, Dominguez S, Apter G (2015) What words can’t tell. Emotion Lang 10:399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Apter G, Devouche E, Garez V, Valente M, Genet MC, Gratier M, Dominguez S, Tronick E (2016) The still face: a greater challenge for infants of borderline mothers. J Pers Disord 30:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cole PM, Michel MK, Teti LO (1994) The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation: A clinical perspective. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 59:73–100, 250–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Apter G (2004) De l’intersubjectivité à l’intrapsychique. Etude des interactions précoces des mères borderline et de leur bébé de trois mois. Thèse de doctorat en psychologie sous la direction de M. Bydlowski. Université Paris 7 DiderotGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Apter G, Devouche E, Gratier M (2011) Perinatal mental health. J Nerv Ment Dis 199(8):575–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Guédeney N (2011) Les racines de l’estime de soi: apports de la théorie de l’attachement. Dev Dent 23(2):129–144Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kobak R (1999) The emotional dynamic of disruptions in attachment relationships. Implications for theory, research, and clinical implications. In: Cassidy J, Shavers P (eds) Handbook of attachment: theory, research and clinical applications. Guildford Press, New York, pp 21–43Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Heller W (1993) Neuropsychological mechanisms of individual differences in emotion, personality, and arousal. Neuropsychology 7:476–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bowlby J (1980) Attachment and loss, Loss, sadness and depression, vol 3. Hogarth Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ainsworth MDS, Blehar MC, Waters E, Wall S (1978) Patterns of attachment: a psychological study of the strange situation. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fonagy P, Target M (2005) Bridging the transmission gap: an end to an important mystery of attachment research? Attach Hum Dev 7:333–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Meins E, Fernyhough C, Wainwright R, Das Gupta M, Fradley E, Tuckey M (2002) Mind-mindedness and attachment security as predictors of theory of mind understanding. Child Dev 73:1715–1726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Winnicott DW (1967) Mirror-role of the mother and family in child development. In: Lomas P (ed) The predicament of the family: a psycho-analytical symposium. Hogarth Press, London, pp 26–33Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Winnicott DW (1971) Playing and reality. Tavistock, LondonGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Fonagy P, Gergely G, Jurst M, Target M (2002) Affect regulation, mentalization and the development of the self. Other Press, New York, pp 145–201Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gunnar MR (2003) Attachment and press in early development, does attachment add to the potency of social regulators of infant stress? In: Carter CS, Ahnert L, Grossmann KE, Hrdy SB, Lamb ME, Porges SW, Sachser N (eds) Attachment and bonding a new synthesis. The MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 245–255Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lyons-Ruth K (2005) L’interface entre attachement et intersubjectivité: perspectives issues de l’étude longitudinale de l’attachement désorganisé. Psychothérapies 25:223–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sroufe LA, Waters E (1977) Attachment as an organisational construct. Child Dev 48:1184–1199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Le Nestour A, Apter-Danon G, Héroux C, Mourgues B, Patouillot-Slatine I (2007) Parentalités limites et prises en charge thérapeutiques. Psychiatr Enfant 50(1):125–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Williams AS, Apter G (2017) Helping mothers with the emotional dysregulation of borderline personality disorder and their infants in primary care settings. Aust Fam Physician 46(9):669Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Apter G, Williams AES (2018) Infants of emotionally dysregulated or borderline personality disordered mothers. Aust J Gen Pract 47(4):203Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gisèle Apter
    • 1
    • 2
  • Emmanuel Devouche
    • 3
  1. 1.Groupe Hospitalier du HavreMontivilliersFrance
  2. 2.Université de Rouen NormandieRouenFrance
  3. 3.Paris Descartes UniversityParisFrance

Personalised recommendations