Infection Control in Extrapulmonary TB
Infection control became a cornerstone for prevention and control of tuberculosis (TB). Transmission of M. tuberculosis occurs from one person to another through the airborne route, when an infected person speaks, coughs or sneezes. Transmission of TB is affected by the infectiousness of patient, environmental conditions and timing of exposure. TB infection prevention and control strategies are structured in three levels: administrative, environmental and personal respiratory protection.
In majority of extrapulmonary sites, TB is usually not contagious. However, sometimes irrigation of tuberculous lesions can produce infectious droplet nuclei resulting in transmission of M. tuberculosis. Persons with extrapulmonary TB disease may have concurrent unsuspected pulmonary or laryngeal TB disease. The clinical picture of extrapulmonary TB is atypical, and therefore it is very difficult to obtain correct microbiological samples for the confirmation of diagnosis. The chapter describes the most common extrapulmonary sites and corresponding infection control measures.
KeywordsExtrapulmonary tuberculosis Infection control Transmission Administrative measures Environmental measures Personal respiratory protection TB during autopsy Spinal TB Laryngeal TB Tracheobronchial TB
- 1.World Health Organization. WHO policy on TB infection control in health-care facilities, congregate settings and households. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009.Google Scholar
- 3.Sterling TR, Haas DW. Transmission of mycobacterium tuberculosis from health care workers. N Engl J Med. 2006;29:1–4.Google Scholar
- 4.Pfyffer G, Palicova F. Mycobacterium: general characteristics, laboratory detection, and staining procedures. In: Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D, editors. Manual of clinical microbiology. 10th ed. Washington, DC: ASM Press; 2011. p. 472–502.Google Scholar
- 5.Jarwis W. Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In: Mayhall G, editor. Hospital epidemiology and infection control. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012.Google Scholar
- 7.Menzies D, Khan FA. Nosocomial tuberculosis. In: Bennett & Brachman’s hospital infections. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014.Google Scholar