Advertisement

3D Printing Technology of Polymer Composites and Hydrogels for Artificial Skin Tissue Implementations

  • Jenifer Joseph
  • Kalim Deshmukh
  • Tran Tung
  • K. Chidambaram
  • S. K. Khadheer PashaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Lecture Notes in Bioengineering book series (LNBE)

Abstract

Today, the need for tissue and organ transplant has occupied the centre stage in the field of biomedical engineering. The requirement and the replacement ratio increase drastically where the supply was not met by the demand due to the lack of donors, poor biocompatibility of tissues from donors that boycotts the transplant itself. On the other hand, from the advancement in technology, it is possible to replace natural tissues with some polymeric hydrogels whose mechanical behaviour and biocompatibility resembles the natural tissues. Additionally, hydrogels are one of the effective materials that offer an aqua environment with enriched oxygen and nutrition content that a biological cell needs. Further, three-dimensional (3D) printing, a manufacturing technique where the biomedical organs are fussed with materials such as plastic, ceramics, liquids, powder, living cell etc. in such a way that it provides a 3D object in the micron-scale resolution. Therefore, the combination of polymer composites, hydrogels and 3D printing has its application in skin bioprinting and tissue engineering. Thus, it contributes in acquiring a new, efficient, cost-effective and enhanced biocompatible biological organ.

Keywords

3D printing Hydrogels Polymer composites Artificial skin Biomedical field 

List of Abbreviations

3D printing

Three-dimensional printing

AM

Additive manufacturing

APS

Ammonium persulfate

CA

Cellulose acetate

Ca2+

Calcium

CAD

Computer-aided design

CMC

Carboxymethylcellulose

dECM

Decellularized extracellular matrix

ECHs

Electro-conductive hydrogels

ECM

Extracellular matrix

FDM

Fused deposition modelling FDM

GelMA

Gelatin methacrylate

GO

Graphene oxide

HA

Hydroxyapatite

KPS

Potassium persulfate

LAB

Laser-assisted bioprinting

MgO

Magnesia

MWCNTs

Multiwall carbon nanotubes

PAN

Polyacrylonitrile

PANI

Polyaniline

PCL

Polycaprolactone

PE

Polyethylene

PEG

Poly ethylene glycol

PEGDA

Poly ethylene glycol diacrylate

PES

Polyethersulfone

PGA

Poly glycolic acid

PLA

Polylactic acid

PLGA

Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid

PNIPAAm

Poly N-isopropyl acrylamide

PPy

Polypyrrole

PSF

Polysulfone

PTFE

Poly (tetrafluoroethylene)

PU

Poly urethane

PVA

Poly vinyl alcohol

PVC

Poly vinyl chloride

PVDF

Polyvinylidene fluoride

PVME

Poly (viny1 methyl ether)

RP

Rapid prototyping

SFF

Solid-free form technology

STL

Stereolithography

SWCNTs

Single-wall carbon nanotubes

References

  1. Aboutalebi Anaraki N, Roshanfekr Rad L, Irani M, Haririan I (2015) Fabrication of PLA/PEG/MWCNT electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for anticancer drug delivery. J Appl Polym Sci 132(3):41286Google Scholar
  2. Almeida CR, Serra T, Oliveira MI, Planell JA, Barbosa MA, Navarro M (2014) Impact of 3-D printed PLA-and chitosan-based scaffolds on human monocyte/macrophage responses: unraveling the effect of 3-D structures on inflammation. Acta Biomater 10(2):613–622Google Scholar
  3. Aoki H, Al-Assaf S, Katayama T, Phillips GO (2007) Characterization and properties of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. var. senegal with enhanced properties (Acacia (sen) SUPER GUM™). Food Hydrocolloids 21:329–337Google Scholar
  4. Arslan-Yildiz A, El Assal R, Chen P, Guven S, Inci F, Demirci U (2016) Towards artificial tissue models: past, present, and future of 3D bioprinting. Biofabrication 8(1):014103Google Scholar
  5. Barron JA, Ringeisen BR, Kim H, Spargo BJ, Chrisey DB (2004) Application of laser printing to mammalian cells. Thin Solid Films 453:383–387Google Scholar
  6. Billiet T, Gevaert E, De Schryver T, Cornelissen M, Dubruel P (2014) The 3D printing of gelatin methacrylamide cell-laden tissue-engineered constructs with high cell viability. Biomaterials 35(1):49–62Google Scholar
  7. Chang CC, Boland ED, Williams SK, Hoying JB (2011) Direct-write bioprinting three-dimensional biohybrid systems for future regenerative therapies. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 98(1):160–170Google Scholar
  8. Cheng C, Sun S, Zhao C (2014) Progress in heparin and heparin-like/mimicking polymer-functionalized biomedical membranes. J Mater Chem B 2(44):7649–7672Google Scholar
  9. Christensen K, Xu C, Chai W, Zhang Z, Fu J, Huang Y (2015) Freeform inkjet printing of cellular structures with bifurcations. Biotechnol Bioeng 112(5):1047–1055Google Scholar
  10. Chung HJ, Park TG (2009) Self-assembled and nanostructured hydrogels for drug delivery and tissue engineering. Nano Today 4(5):429–437Google Scholar
  11. Colina M, Serra P, Fernández-Pradas JM, Sevilla L, Morenza JL (2005) DNA deposition through laser induced forward transfer. Biosens Bioelectron 20(8):1638–1642Google Scholar
  12. Cui X, Boland T, DD’Lima D, Lotz MK (2012) Thermal inkjet printing in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul 6(2):149–155Google Scholar
  13. Dababneh AB, Ozbolat IT (2014) Bioprinting technology: a current state-of-the-art review. J Manuf Sci Eng 136(6):061016Google Scholar
  14. de Nooy AE, Masci G, Crescenzi V (1999) Versatile synthesis of polysaccharide hydrogels using the Passerini and Ugi multicomponent condensations. Macromolecules 32(4):1318–1320Google Scholar
  15. de Nooy AE, Capitani D, Masci G, Crescenzi V (2000) Ionic polysaccharide hydrogels via the Passerini and Ugi multicomponent condensations: synthesis, behavior and solid-state NMR characterization. Biomacromolecules 1(2):259–267Google Scholar
  16. Derby B (2012) Printing and prototyping of tissues and scaffolds. Science 338(6109):921–926Google Scholar
  17. Dinca V, Kasotakis E, Catherine J, Mourka A, Ranella A, Ovsianikov A, Chichkov BN, Farsari M, Mitraki A, Fotakis C (2008) Directed three-dimensional patterning of self-assembled peptide fibrils. Nano Lett 8(2):538–543Google Scholar
  18. Do AV, Khorsand B, Geary SM, Salem AK (2015) 3D printing of scaffolds for tissue regeneration applications. Adv Healthc Mater 4(12):1742–1762Google Scholar
  19. Drury JL, Mooney DJ (2003) Hydrogels for tissue engineering: scaffold design variables and applications. Biomaterials 24(24):4337–4351Google Scholar
  20. Duan B (2017) State-of-the-art review of 3D bioprinting for cardiovascular tissue engineering. Ann Biomed Eng 45(1):195–209Google Scholar
  21. Ebara M, Kotsuchibashi Y, Narain R, Idota N, Kim YJ, Hoffman JM, Uto K, Aoyagi T (2014) Smart biomaterials. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  22. Fang Y, Frampton JP, Raghavan S, Sabahi-Kaviani R, Luker G, Deng CX, Takayama S (2012) Rapid generation of multiplexed cell cocultures using acoustic droplet ejection followed by aqueous two-phase exclusion patterning. Tissue Eng Part C Methods 18(9):647–657Google Scholar
  23. Gonçalves EM, Oliveira FJ, Silva RF, Neto MA, Fernandes MH, Amaral M, Vallet-Regí M, Vila M (2016) Three-dimensional printed PCL-hydroxyapatite scaffolds filled with CNTs for bone cell growth stimulation. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 104(6):1210–1219Google Scholar
  24. Gross BC, Erkal JL, Lockwood SY, Chen C, Spence DM (2014) Evaluation of 3D printing and its potential impact on biotechnology and the chemical sciences. Anal Chem 86(7):3240–3253Google Scholar
  25. Gu BK, Choi DJ, Park SJ, Kim MS, Kang CM, Kim CH (2016) 3-dimensional bioprinting for tissue engineering applications. Biomater Res 20(12):1–8Google Scholar
  26. Guillotin B, Guillemot F (2011) Cell patterning technologies for organotypic tissue fabrication. Trends Biotechnol 29(4):183–190Google Scholar
  27. Guillotin B, Souquet A, Catros S, Duocastella M, Pippenger B, Bellance S, Bareille R, Remy M, Bordenave L, Amedee J, Guillemot F (2010) Laser assisted bioprinting of engineered tissue with high cell density and microscale organization. Biomaterials 31(28):7250–7256Google Scholar
  28. Hennink WE, van Nostrum CF (2012) Novel crosslinking methods to design hydrogels. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 64:223–236Google Scholar
  29. Hoffman AS (2012) Hydrogels for biomedical applications. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 64:18–23Google Scholar
  30. Huh D, Torisawa YS, Hamilton GA, Kim HJ, Ingber DE (2012) Microengineered physiological biomimicry: organs-on-chips. Lab Chip 12(12):2156–2164Google Scholar
  31. Ingber DE, Mow VC, Butler D, Niklason L, Huard J, Mao J, Yannas I, Kaplan D, Vunjak-Novakovic G (2006) Tissue engineering and developmental biology: going biomimetic. Tissue Eng 12(12):3265–3283Google Scholar
  32. Intra J, Glasgow JM, Mai HQ, Salem AK (2008) Pulsatile release of biomolecules from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chips with hydrolytically degradable seals. J Controlled Release 127(3):280–287Google Scholar
  33. Iwami K, Noda T, Ishida K, Morishima K, Nakamura M, Umeda N (2010) Bio rapid prototyping by extruding/aspirating/refilling thermoreversible hydrogel. Biofabrication 2(1):014108Google Scholar
  34. Jang J, Park JY, Gao G, Cho DW (2018) Biomaterials-based 3D cell printing for next-generation therapeutics and diagnostics. Biomaterials 156:88–106Google Scholar
  35. Jayaramudu T, Li Y, Ko HU, Shishir IR, Kim J (2016a) Poly (acrylic acid)-Poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogels for reconfigurable lens actuators. Int J Precis Eng Manuf Green Technol 3(4):375–379Google Scholar
  36. Jayaramudu T, Raghavendra GM, Varaprasad K, Raju KM, Sadiku ER, Kim J (2016b) 5-Fluorouracil encapsulated magnetic nanohydrogels for drug-delivery applications. J Appl Polym Sci 133:37Google Scholar
  37. Jeong KH, Park D, Lee YC (2017) Polymer-based hydrogel scaffolds for skin tissue engineering applications: a mini-review. J Polym Res 24(7):112Google Scholar
  38. Jones N (2012) Science in three dimensions: the print revolution. Nature 487:22–23Google Scholar
  39. Jones R, Haufe P, Sells E, Iravani P, Olliver V, Palmer C, Bowyer A (2011) RepRap–the replicating rapid prototyper. Robotica 29(1):177–191Google Scholar
  40. Kaith BS, Sharma R, Kalia S (2015) Guar gum based biodegradable, antibacterial and electrically conductive hydrogels. Int J Bio Macromol 75:266–275Google Scholar
  41. Kang HW, Lee SJ, Ko IK, Kengla C, Yoo JJ, Atala A (2016) A 3D bioprinting system to produce human-scale tissue constructs with structural integrity. Nat Biotechnol 34(3):312Google Scholar
  42. Kasza KE, Rowat AC, Liu J, Angelini TE, Brangwynne CP, Koenderink GH, Weitz DA (2007) The cell as a material. Curr Opin Cell Biol 19(1):101–107Google Scholar
  43. Kaur G, Adhikari R, Cass P, Bown M, Gunatillake P (2015) Electrically conductive polymers and composites for biomedical applications. RSC Adv 5(47):37553–37567Google Scholar
  44. Kelm JM, Lorber V, Snedeker JG, Schmidt D, Broggini-Tenzer A, Weisstanner M, Odermatt B, Mol A, Zünd G, Hoerstrup SP (2010) A novel concept for scaffold-free vessel tissue engineering: self-assembly of microtissue building blocks. J Biotechnol 148(1):46–55Google Scholar
  45. Kim YB, Kim GH (2015) PCL/alginate composite scaffolds for hard tissue engineering: fabrication, characterization, and cellular activities. ACS Comb Sci 17(2):87–99Google Scholar
  46. Kishi R, Ichijo H, Hirasa O (1993) Thermo-responsive devices using poly (vinyl methyl ether) hydrogels. J Intell Mater Syst Struct 4(4):533–537Google Scholar
  47. Lee JS, Kim BS, Seo D, Park JH, Cho DW (2017) Three-dimensional cell printing of large-volume tissues: application to ear regeneration. Tissue Eng Part C Methods 23(3):136–145Google Scholar
  48. Lu T, Li Y, Chen T (2013) Techniques for fabrication and construction of three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering. Int J Nanomed 8:337Google Scholar
  49. Lu Y, He W, Cao T, Guo H, Zhang Y, Li Q, Shao Z, Cui Y, Zhang X (2014) Elastic, conductive, polymeric hydrogels and sponges. Sci Rep 4:5792Google Scholar
  50. Malda J, Visser J, Melchels FP, Jüngst T, Hennink WE, Dhert WJ, Groll J, Hutmacher DW (2013) 25th anniversary article: engineering hydrogels for biofabrication. Adv Mater 25(36):5011–5028Google Scholar
  51. Meng J, Xiao B, Zhang Y, Liu J, Xue H, Lei J, Kong H, Huang Y, Jin Z, Gu N, Xu H (2013) Super-paramagnetic responsive nanofibrous scaffolds under static magnetic field enhance osteogenesis for bone repair in vivo. Sci Rep 3:2655Google Scholar
  52. Murphy SV, Atala A (2014) 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs. Nat Biotechnol 32(8):773–785Google Scholar
  53. Ng WL, Wang S, Yeong WY, Naing MW (2016) Skin bioprinting: impending reality or fantasy. Trends Biotechnol 34:689–699Google Scholar
  54. Noshadi I, Walker BW, Portillo-Lara R, Sani ES, Gomes N, Aziziyan MR, Annabi N (2017) Engineering biodegradable and biocompatible bio-ionic liquid conjugated hydrogels with tunable conductivity and mechanical properties. Sci Rep 7(1):4345Google Scholar
  55. Okamoto T, Suzuki T, Yamamoto N (2000) Microarray fabrication with covalent attachment of DNA using bubble jet technology. Nat Biotechnol 18(4):438–441Google Scholar
  56. Ozbolat IT (2015) Bioprinting scale-up tissue and organ constructs for transplantation. Trends Biotechnol 33(7):395–400Google Scholar
  57. Ozbolat IT, Hospodiuk M (2016) Current advances and future perspectives in extrusion-based bioprinting. Biomaterials 76:321–343Google Scholar
  58. Ozbolat IT, Yu Y (2013) Bioprinting toward organ fabrication: challenges and future trends. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 60(3):691–699Google Scholar
  59. Park JY, Shim JH, Choi SA, Jang J, Kim M, Lee SH, Cho DW (2015) 3D printing technology to control BMP-2 and VEGF delivery spatially and temporally to promote large-volume bone regeneration. J Mater Chem B 3(27):5415–5425Google Scholar
  60. Park SH, Jung CS, Min BH (2016) Advances in three-dimensional bioprinting for hard tissue engineering. Tissue Eng Regen Med 13(6):622–635Google Scholar
  61. Pati F, Jang J, Ha DH, Kim SW, Rhie JW, Shim JH, Kim DH, Cho DW (2014) Printing three-dimensional tissue analogues with decellularized extracellular matrix bioink. Nat Commun 5:3935Google Scholar
  62. Pati F, Gantelius J, Svahn HA (2016) 3D bioprinting of tissue/organ models. Angew Chem Int Ed 55(15):4650–4665Google Scholar
  63. Peltola SM, Melchels FP, Grijpma DW, Kellomaki M (2008) A review of rapid prototyping techniques for tissue engineering purposes. Ann Med 40(4):268–280Google Scholar
  64. Poh PS, Hutmacher DW, Holzapfel BM, Solanki AK, Stevens MM, Woodruff MA (2016) In vitro and in vivo bone formation potential of surface calcium phosphate-coated polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone/bioactive glass composite scaffolds. Acta Biomater 30:319–333Google Scholar
  65. Radenkovic D, Solouk A, Seifalian A (2016) Personalized development of human organs using 3D printing technology. Med Hypotheses 87:30–33Google Scholar
  66. Reed EJ, Klumb L, Koobatian M, Viney C (2009) Biomimicry as a route to new materials: what kinds of lessons are useful? Phil Trans R Soc A 367:1571–1585Google Scholar
  67. Rengier F, Mehndiratta A, Von Tengg-Kobligk H, Zechmann CM, Unterhinninghofen R, Kauczor HU, Giesel FL (2010) 3D printing based on imaging data: review of medical applications. Int J CARS 5(4):335–341Google Scholar
  68. Roh HS, Lee CM, Hwang YH, Kook MS, Yang SW, Lee D, Kim BH (2017) Addition of MgO nanoparticles and plasma surface treatment of three-dimensional printed polycaprolactone/hydroxyapatite scaffolds for improving bone regeneration. Mater Sci Eng 74:525–535Google Scholar
  69. Said HM, Alla SG, El-Naggar AW (2004) Synthesis and characterization of novel gels based on carboxymethyl cellulose/acrylic acid prepared by electron beam irradiation. React Funct Polym 61(3):397–404Google Scholar
  70. Schubert C, Van Langeveld MC, Donoso LA (2014) Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs. Br J Ophthalmol 98(2):159–161Google Scholar
  71. Shim JH, Jang KM, Hahn SK, Park JY, Jung H, Oh K, Park KM, Yeom J, Park SH, Kim SW, Wang JH (2016) Three-dimensional bioprinting of multilayered constructs containing human mesenchymal stromal cells for osteochondral tissue regeneration in the rabbit knee joint. Biofabrication 8(1):014102Google Scholar
  72. Shin SR, Zihlmann C, Akbari M, Assawes P, Cheung L, Zhang K, Manoharan V, Zhang YS, Yüksekkaya M, Wan KT, Nikkhah M (2016) Reduced graphene oxide-gel MA hybrid hydrogels as scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering. Small 12(27):3677–3689Google Scholar
  73. Slaughter BV, Khurshid SS, Fisher OZ, Khademhosseini A, Peppas NA (2009) Hydrogels in regenerative medicine. Adv Mat 21(32–33):3307–3329Google Scholar
  74. Sperinde JJ, Griffith LG (1997) Synthesis and characterization of enzymatically-cross-linked poly (ethylene glycol) hydrogels. Macromolecules 30(18):5255–5264Google Scholar
  75. Stanton MM, Samitier J, Sanchez S (2015) Bioprinting of 3D hydrogels. Lab Chip 15(15):3111–3115Google Scholar
  76. Suzuki M, Hirasa O (1993) An approach to artificial muscle using polymer gels formed by micro-phase separation. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  77. Tayalia P, Mooney DJ (2009) Controlled growth factor delivery for tissue engineering. Adv Mater 21(32–33):3269–3285Google Scholar
  78. Tsai KY, Lin HY, Chen YW, Lin CY, Hsu TT, Kao CT (2017) Laser sintered magnesium-calcium silicate/poly-ε-caprolactone scaffold for bone tissue engineering. Materials 10(1):65Google Scholar
  79. Ulbricht M (2006) Advanced functional polymer membranes. Polymer 47(7):2217–2262Google Scholar
  80. Ullah F, Othman MB, Javed F, Ahmad Z, Akil HM (2015) Classification, processing and application of hydrogels: a review. Mater Sci Eng C 57:414–433Google Scholar
  81. Vandenhaute M, Snoeck D, Vanderleyden E, De Belie N, Van Vlierberghe S, Dubruel P (2017) Stability of Pluronic® F127 bismethacrylate hydrogels: reality or utopia? Polym Degrad Stab 146:201–211Google Scholar
  82. Varaprasad K, Raghavendra GM, Jayaramudu T, Yallapu MM, Sadiku R (2017) A mini review on hydrogels classification and recent developments in miscellaneous applications. Mater Sci Eng C 79:958–971Google Scholar
  83. Ventola CL (2014) Medical applications for 3D printing: current and projected uses. Pharm Ther 39(10):704–711Google Scholar
  84. Visser J, Peters B, Burger TJ, Boomstra J, Dhert WJ, Melchels FP, Malda J (2013) Biofabrication of multi-material anatomically shaped tissue constructs. Biofabrication 5(3):035007Google Scholar
  85. Wang K, Ho CC, Zhang C, Wang B (2017) A review on the 3D printing of functional structures for medical phantoms and regenerated tissue and organ applications. Engineering 3(5):653–662Google Scholar
  86. Włodarczyk-Biegun MK, del Campo A (2017) 3D bioprinting of structural proteins. Biomaterials 134:180–201Google Scholar
  87. Wong HM, Chu PK, Leung FK, Cheung KM, Luk KD, Yeung KW (2014) Engineered polycaprolactone–magnesium hybrid biodegradable porous scaffold for bone tissue engineering. Prog Nat Sci Mater Int 24(5):561–567Google Scholar
  88. Wu Y, Chen YX, Yan J, Quinn D, Dong P, Sawyer SW, Soman P (2016) Fabrication of conductive gelatin methacrylate–polyaniline hydrogels. Acta Biomater 33:122–130Google Scholar
  89. Xu T, Jin J, Gregory C, Hickman JJ, Boland T (2005) Inkjet printing of viable mammalian cells. Biomaterials 26(1):93–99Google Scholar
  90. Xu T, Gregory CA, Molnar P, Cui X, Jalota S, Bhaduri SB, Boland T (2006) Viability and electrophysiology of neural cell structures generated by the inkjet printing method. Biomaterials 27(19):3580–3588Google Scholar
  91. Xu T, Kincaid H, Atala A, Yoo JJ (2008) High-throughput production of single-cell microparticles using an inkjet printing technology. J Manuf Sci Eng 130(2):021017Google Scholar
  92. Xu T, Zhao W, Zhu JM, Albanna MZ, Yoo JJ, Atala A (2013) Complex heterogeneous tissue constructs containing multiple cell types prepared by inkjet printing technology. Biomaterials 34(1):130–139Google Scholar
  93. Yang C, Chen S, Wang J, Zhu T, Xu G, Chen Z, Ma X, Li W (2016) A facile electrospinning method to fabricate polylactide/graphene/MWCNTs nanofiber membrane for tissues scaffold. Appl Surf Sci 362:163–168Google Scholar
  94. Yue K, Trujillo-de Santiago G, Alvarez MM, Tamayol A, Annabi N, Khademhosseini A (2015) Synthesis, properties, and biomedical applications of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels. Biomaterials 73:254–271Google Scholar
  95. Zhang YS, Choi SW, Xia Y (2013) Inverse opal scaffolds for applications in regenerative medicine. Soft Matter 9(41):9747–9754Google Scholar
  96. Zhang J, Zhao S, Zhu M, Zhu Y, Zhang Y, Liu Z, Zhang C (2014) 3D-printed magnetic Fe 3O4/MBG/PCL composite scaffolds with multifunctionality of bone regeneration, local anticancer drug delivery and hyperthermia. J Mater Chem B 2(43):7583–7595Google Scholar
  97. Zhang YS, Yue K, Aleman J, Mollazadeh-Moghaddam K, Bakht SM, Yang J, Jia W, Dell’Erba V, Assawes P, Shin SR, Dokmeci MR (2017) 3D bioprinting for tissue and organ fabrication. Ann Biomed Eng 45(1):148–163Google Scholar
  98. Zhao QS, Ji QX, Xing K, Li XY, Liu CS, Chen XG (2009) Preparation and characteristics of novel porous hydrogel films based on chitosan and glycerophosphate. Carbohydr Polym 76(3):410–416Google Scholar
  99. Zhu Y, Mao Z, Gao C (2013) Aminolysis-based surface modification of polyesters for biomedical applications. RSC Adv 3(8):2509–2519Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jenifer Joseph
    • 1
  • Kalim Deshmukh
    • 2
  • Tran Tung
    • 3
  • K. Chidambaram
    • 1
  • S. K. Khadheer Pasha
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Physics, School of Advanced SciencesVIT UniversityVelloreIndia
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsB.S. Abdur Rahman Crescent Institute of Science and TechnologyChennaiIndia
  3. 3.The University of AdelaideNorth Terrace, AdelaideAustralia
  4. 4.Department of PhysicsVIT-AP UniversityAmaravati, GunturIndia

Personalised recommendations