La Haute Direction, Impartial and Partial Officials

  • David Macfadyen
  • Michael D. V. Davies
  • Marilyn Norah Carr
  • John Burley
Part of the Understanding Governance book series (TRG)


Begins with a short pen-portrait of Monnet and continues with an account of Drummond’s relationships with the Deputy and Under Secretaries-General (USGs). He was close to Monnet, his first deputy, but far less so with Joseph Avenol who succeeded him. The chapter explains how the Haute Direction was the League’s working link to the Great Powers and examines their responsibilities and their responses to external events. The two Japanese USGs, Inazo Nitobe and Yotaro Sugimura, were greatly respected, the latter becoming one of Drummond’s most trusted colleagues. Italy’s transition to a Fascist dictatorship placed USG Bernado Attolico in a difficult position and his successor Giacomo Paulucci’s ostentatious Fascist behaviour caused Drummond serious problems.


Monnet Avenol Japanese USGs Manchurian crisis Italian and German USGs Political appointees 

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Macfadyen
    • 1
  • Michael D. V. Davies
    • 2
  • Marilyn Norah Carr
    • 3
  • John Burley
    • 4
  1. 1.North BerwickUK
  2. 2.KinghamUK
  3. 3.RichmondUK
  4. 4.Divonne-les-BainsFrance

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