Product and Service Design for Remanufacturing, Uncertainty and the Environmental Impact in the Closed-Loop Supply Chain Network

  • Qiang (Patrick) Qiang
  • Rong FuEmail author
  • Shaowei Chen
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics book series (SPBE)


We propose a closed-loop supply chain network model, in which the manufacturers compete with each other to determine the production quantity and remanufactureability service level. The network equilibrium solution is presented by utilizing the theory of variational inequalities. The properties of the solution are discuss.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Management Division, Penn State Great Valley School of Graduate Professional StudiesMalvernUSA
  2. 2.Xi’an University of Finance and EconomicsXi’anChina

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