Advertisement

Teaching Esophageal Speech: A Process of Collaborative Instruction

  • Philip C. DoyleEmail author
  • Elizabeth A. Finchem
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter outlines the methods of instruction for the acquisition of esophageal speech for those who are laryngectomized. In seeking to meet this objective, several aspects of instruction are addressed. This includes a description of the structures used for the esophageal “voicing” process and its utility for this postlaryngectomy method of alaryngeal speech. Anatomical, physiological, and aerodynamic features are described. Relationships between physical structures and physiologic events are described. A framework that outlines the procedural aspects of teaching esophageal speech from the acquisition of one’s first esophageal sound to functional communicative use of the method is then addressed. A major component of this chapter is directed toward advocacy for collaborative efforts of instruction between the speech-language pathologist (SLP) and highly proficient esophageal speakers who can serve in the role of a lay instructor. Given an increasing lack of qualified esophageal speech teachers in the current era, we encourage collaborative efforts between the SLP and proficient esophageal speakers. Such collaborative efforts between the professional and laryngectomee community may foster improved instruction and facilitate better outcomes in those who wish to acquire esophageal speech.

Keywords

Esophageal speech Laryngectomy Postlaryngectomy speech Alaryngeal speech 

Notes

Authors’ Note

Elizabeth Finchem underwent a total laryngectomy at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, on October 2, 1978. She has been listed in the IAL Directory of Alaryngeal Speech Instructors since 1984. In 2009, Elizabeth began teaching ES via Skype to laryngectomees from many countries. Since that time, there has been a steadily increasing interest in ES, enough to start a support group focused on ES only. On January 19, 2019 Esophageal Speech Support was launched on FB; as of June 2018, the group has 554 members. https://www.facebook.com/groups/elizabethfinchem/

References

  1. Amster, W. W. (1986). Advanced stage of teaching alaryngeal speech. In R. L. Keith & F. L. Darley (Eds.), Laryngectomee rehabilitation (pp. 177–192). San Diego: College-Hill Press.Google Scholar
  2. Angermeier, C. B., & Weinberg, B. (1981). Some aspects of fundamental frequency control by esophageal speakers. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 46, 85–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bennett, S., & Weinberg, B. (1973). Acceptability ratings of normal, esophageal, and artificial larynx speech. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 16, 608–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berlin, C. I. (1963). Clinical measurement of esophageal speech: I. Methodology and curves of skill acquisition. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 28, 42–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berlin, C. I. (1964). Hearing loss, palatal function, and other factors in post-laryngectomy rehabilitation. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 17, 677–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berlin, C. I. (1965). Clinical measurement of esophageal speech: III. Performance of non-biased groups. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 30, 174–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blood, G. W. (1981). The interaction of amplitude and phonetic quality in esophageal speech. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 24, 308–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brewer, D. W., Gould, L. V., & Casper, J. (1975). Fiber‐optic video study of the post‐laryngectomized voice. The Laryngoscope, 85(4), 666–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Byles, P. L., Forner, L. L., & Stemple, J. C. (1985). Communication apprehension in esophageal and tracheoesophageal speakers. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 50, 114–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chodosh, P. L., Giancarlo, H. R., & Goldstein, J. (1984). Pharyngeal myotomy for vocal rehabilitation postlaryngectomy. Laryngoscope, 94, 52–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clark, J. G. (1985). Alaryngeal speech intelligibility and the older listener. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 50, 60–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Connor, N. P., Hamlet, S. L., & Joyce, J. C. (1985). Acoustic and physiologic correlates of the voicing distinction in esophageal speech. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 50, 378–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Curry, E. T., & Snidecor, J. C. (1961). Physical measurement and pitch perception in esophageal speech. Laryngoscope, 71, 415–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Damste, P. H. (1958). Oesophageal speech after laryngectomy. Groningen, Netherlands: Boedrukkefif Voorheen Grbroeders Hoitsema.Google Scholar
  15. Damste, P. H. (1979). Some obstacles in learning esophageal speech. In R. L. Keith & F. L. Darley (Eds.), Laryngectomee rehabilitation (pp. 49–61). San Diego: College-Hill Press.Google Scholar
  16. Damste, P. H. (1986). Some obstacles to learning esophageal speech. In R. L. Keith & F. L. Darley (Eds.), Laryngectomee rehabilitation (2nd ed., pp. 85–92). San Diego: College-Hill Press.Google Scholar
  17. Damste, P. H., & Lerman, J. W. (1969). Configuration of the neoglottis: An x-ray study. Folia Phoniatrica, 21, 347–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Daou, R. A., Shultz, J. R., Remy, H., Chan, N. T., & Attia, E. L. (1984). Laryngectomee study: Clinical and radiologic correlates of esophageal voice. Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, 92, 628–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Diedrich, W. M. (1968). The mechanism of esophageal speech. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 155, 303–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Diedrich, W. M., & Youngstrom, K. A. (1966). Alaryngeal speech. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  21. Doyle, P. C. (1985). Another perspective on esophageal insufflation testing. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 50, 408–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Doyle, P. C. (1994). Foundations of voice and speech rehabilitation following laryngeal cancer. San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  23. Doyle, P. C., & Eadie, T. L. (2005). The pharyngoesophageal segment as an alaryngeal voicing source: A review and reconsideration. In P. C. Doyle & R. L. Keith (Eds.), Rehabilitation following treatment for head and neck cancer: Voice, speech, and swallowing. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed Publishers.Google Scholar
  24. Doyle, P. C., Danhauer, J. L., & Reed, C. G. (1988). Listeners' perceptions of consonants produced by esophageal and tracheoesophageal talkers. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 53, 400–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Duguay, M. J. (1977). Esophageal speech. In M. Cooper & M. H. Cooper (Eds.), Approaches to vocal rehabilitation (pp. 346–381). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  26. Duguay, M. (1979). Special problems of the alaryngeal speaker. In R. L. Keith & F. L. Darley (Eds.), Laryngectomee rehabilitation (pp. 423–444). San Diego, CA: College-Hill Press.Google Scholar
  27. Duguay, M. J. (1980). The speech-language pathologist and the laryngectomized lay teacher in alaryngeal speech rehabilitation. ASHA, 22, 965–966.Google Scholar
  28. Fairbanks, G. (1960). Voice and articulation drillbook. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  29. Finkbeiner, E. R. (1978). Surgery and speech, the pseudoglottis and respiration in total standard laryngectomee. In J. C. Snidecor (Ed.), Speech rehabilitation of the laryngectomized (pp. 58–85). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  30. Gardner, W. H. (1971). Laryngectomee speech and rehabilitation. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  31. Gately, G. (1976). Another technique for teaching the laryngectomized person to inject air for the production of esophageal tone. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 42, 311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gates, G. A., & Hearne, E. M. (1982). Predicting esophageal speech. Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, 3, 454–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gates, G. A., Ryan, W., Cantu, E., & Hearne, E. (1982). Current status of laryngectomee rehabilitation: II. Causes of failure. American Journal of Otolaryngology, 3, 8–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gates, G. A., Ryan, W., Cooper, J. C., Jr., Lawlis, G. F., Cantu, E., Lauder, E., … Hearne, E. (1982). Current status of laryngectomee rehabilitation: I. Results of therapy. American Journal of Otolaryngology, 3(1), 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hoops, H. R., & Noll, J. D. (1969). Relationship of selected acoustic variables to judgments of esophageal speech. Journal of Communication Disorders, 2, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Horii, Y., & Weinberg, B. (1975). Intelligibility characteristics of superior esophageal speech presented under various levels of masking noise. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 18, 413–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Isshiki, N. (1964). Regulatory mechanism of voice intensity variation. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 7, 17–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Isshiki, N., & Snidecor, J. C. (1965). Air intake and usage in esophageal speech. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 59, 559–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jackson, C., & Jackson, C. L. (1939). Cancer of the larynx. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  40. Lauder, E. (1989). Self-help for the laryngectomee. San Antonio, TX: Lauder Publishing.Google Scholar
  41. Levin, N. M. (1962). Voice and speech disorders: Medical aspects. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  42. Martin, D. E. (1986). Pre-and post-op anatomical and physiological observations in laryngectomy. In R. L. Keith & F. L. Darley (Eds.), Laryngectomy rehabilitation (2nd ed., pp. 221–225). California: College-Hill Press.Google Scholar
  43. McHenry, M., Reich, A., & Minifie, F. (1982). Acoustical characteristics of intended syllabic stress in excellent esophageal speakers. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 25, 554–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Moolenaar-Bijl, A. (1953). Connection between consonant articulation and the intake of air in oesophageal speech. Folia Phoniatrica, 5, 212–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Palmer, J. M. (1970). Clinical expectations in esophageal speech. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 35, 160–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Robe, E. Y., Moore, P., Andrews, A. H., Jr., & Holinger, P. H. (1956). A study of the role of certain factors in the development of speech after laryngectomy: 1. Type of operation; 2. Site of pseudoglottis; 3. Coordination of speech with respiration. The Laryngoscope, 66(5), 481–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ryan, W., Gates, G. W., Cantu, E., & Hearne, E. (1982). Current status of laryngectomee rehabilitation: III. Understanding esophageal speech. American Journal of Otolaryngology, 3, 91–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Salmon, S. J. (1986). Factors that may interfere with acquiring esophageal speech. In R. L. Keith & F. L. Darley (Eds.), Laryngectomy rehabilitation (2nd ed., pp. 357–363). San Diego, CA: College-Hill Press.Google Scholar
  49. Schaefer, S., & Johns, D. F. (1982). Attaining function esophageal speech. Archives of Otolaryngology, 108, 647–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shames, G. H., Font, J., & Matthews, J. (1963). Factors related to speech proficiency of the laryngectomized. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 28, 273–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Shanks, J. C. (1979). Essentials for alaryngeal speech: Psychology and physiology. In R. L. Keith & F. L. Darley (Eds.), Laryngectomee rehabilitation (pp. 469–489). San Diego, CA: College-Hill.Google Scholar
  52. Shanks, J. C. (1986). Development of the feminine voice and refinement of esophageal voice. In R. L. Keith & F. L. Darley (Eds.), Laryngectomy rehabilitation, 2nd (pp. 269–276). San Diego, CA: College-Hill Press.Google Scholar
  53. Shipp, T. (1970). EMG of pharygoesophageal musculature during alaryngeal voice production. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 13, 184–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Singer, M. I., & Blom, E. D. (1980). An endoscopic technique for restoration of voice after laryngectomy. Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, 89, 529–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Singer, M. I., & Blom, E. D. (1981). Selective myotomy for voice restoration after total laryngectomy. Archives of Otolaryngology, 107, 670–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Singer, M. I., Blom, E. D., & Hamaker, R. C. (1981). Further experience with voice restoration after total laryngectomy. Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, 90(5), 498–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Singer, M. I., Blom, E. D., & Hamaker, R. C. (1986). Pharyngeal plexus neurectomy for alaryngeal speech rehabilitation. Laryngoscope, 96(1), 50–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Snidecor, J. C. (1975). Some scientific foundations for voice restoration. Laryngoscope, 85, 640–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Snidecor, J. C. (1978). Speech rehabilitation and the laryngectomized (2nd ed.). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  60. Snidecor, J. C., & Curry, E. T. (1959). Temporal and pitch aspects of superior esophageal speech. Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, 68, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Snidecor, J. C., & Curry, E. T. (1960). How effectively can the laryngectomee expect to speak? Laryngoscope, 70, 62–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Snidecor, J. C., & Isshiki, N. (1965). Air volume and air flow relationships of six esophageal speakers. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 30, 205–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Till, J. A., England, K. E., & Law-Till, C. B. (1987). Effects of auditory feedback and phonetic context on stomal noise in laryngectomized speakers. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 52, 243–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Torgerson, J. K., & Martin, D. E. (1980). Acoustic and temporal analysis of esophageal speech produced by alaryngeal and laryngeal talkers. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica, 32(4), 315–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. van den Berg, J., & Moolenaar-Bijl, A. J. (1959). Cricopharyngeal sphincter, pitch, intensity, and fluency in esophageal speech. Practical Otorhinolaryngology, 21, 298–315.Google Scholar
  66. Vrticka, K., & Svoboda, M. (1961). A clinical and x-ray study of 100 laryngectomized speakers. Folia Phoniatrica, 13, 174–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Weinberg, B. (1983). Voice and speech restoration following total laryngectomy. In W. H. Perkins (Ed.), Voice disorders (pp. 109–125). New York: Thieme-Stratton.Google Scholar
  68. Weinberg, B., & Bosma, J. F. (1970). Similarities between glossopharyngeal breathing and injection methods of air intake for esophageal speech. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 35, 25–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Weinberg, B., & Westerhouse, J. (1971). A study of buccal speech. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 14, 652–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Weinberg, B., & Westerhouse, J. (1973). A study of pharyngeal speech. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 38, 111–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Zemlin, W. R. (1988). Speech and hearing science: Anatomy and physiology (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Voice Production and Perception Laboratory & Laboratory for Well-Being and Quality of Life, Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery and School of Communication Sciences and DisordersWestern University, Elborn CollegeLondonCanada
  2. 2.Alaryngeal Speech InstructorTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations