Influence of Alloying on α-αʹ Phase Separation in Duplex Stainless Steels

  • David A. Garfinkel
  • Jonathan D. Poplawsky
  • Wei Guo
  • George A. Young
  • Julie D. TuckerEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)


Thermal embrittlement caused by phase transformations in the temperature range of 204–538 °C limits the service temperature of duplex stainless steels. The present study investigates a set of wrought (2003, 2101, and 2205) and weld (2209-w and 2101-w) alloys in order to better understand how alloying elements affect thermal embrittlement. Samples were aged at 427 °C for up to 10,000 h. The embrittlement and thermal instability were assessed via nanoindentation, impact toughness testing, and atom probe tomography (APT). Results demonstrate that the spinodal amplitude is not an accurate predictor of mechanical degradation, and that nanoindentation within the ferrite grains served as a reasonable approximate for the embrittlement behavior. Compositionally, alloys with a lower concentration of Cr, Mo, and Ni were found to exhibit superior mechanical properties following aging.


Duplex stainless steels Spinodal decomposition Embrittlement 



APT was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS), which is a U.S. DOE Office of Science User Facility.


  1. 1.
    R. Gunn, Duplex Stainless Steels: Microstructure (Elsevier, Properties and Applications, 1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    H.D. Solomon, T.M. Devine, Duplex Stainless Steels: A Tale of Two Phases. American Society for Metals (1982)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Charles, Duplex stainless steels, a review after DSS’07 in Grado, presented at the Revue de Métallurgie, (2008)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Lai, S.H. Shek, K.H. Lo, Stainless Steels : An Introduction and Their Recent Developments. (Bentham Science Publishers, 2012)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    F. Danoix, P. Auger, Atom probe studies of the Fe–Cr system and stainless steels aged at intermediate temperature: a review. Mater. Charact. 44(1), 177–201 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Guttman, Intermediate temperature aging of duplex stainless steels. A Review, (1991)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    S.L. Li et al., Annealing induced recovery of long-term thermal aging embrittlement in a duplex stainless steel. Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 564, 85–91 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. Bonnet, J. Bourgoin, J. Champredonde, D. Guttmann, M. Guttmann, Relationship between evolution of mechanical properties of various cast duplex stainless steels and metallugical and aging parameters: outline of current edf programmes. Mater. Sci. Technol., 6, 221 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    D.A. Garfinkel, J.D. Poplawsky, W. Guo, G.A. Young, J.D. Tucker, Phase separation in lean-grade duplex stainless steel 2101. JOM, 67(10), 2216–2222 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Zhou, J. Odqvist, N. Thuvander, Peter Hedstom, Quantitative evaluation of spinodal decomposition in Fe-Cr by atom probe tomography and radial distribution function analysi. Microsc. Microanal. 19(19), 665–675 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    W. Guo, D.A. Garfinkel, J.D. Tucker, D. Haley, G.A. Young, and J.D., Poplawsky, An atom probe perspective on phase separation and precipitation in duplex stainless steels. J. Nanotechnol. (2016)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    G.A. Young, J.D Tucker, N Lewis, E. Plesko, P. Sander, Assessment of lean grade duplex stainless steels for nuclear power applications. Proc. 15th International Conference Environment Degradation Materials Nuclear Power Systematics-Water React (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • David A. Garfinkel
    • 1
  • Jonathan D. Poplawsky
    • 2
  • Wei Guo
    • 2
  • George A. Young
    • 1
  • Julie D. Tucker
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing EngineeringOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  2. 2.Oak Ridge National LaboratoryCenter for Nanophase Materials SciencesOak RidgeUSA

Personalised recommendations