Distribution and Characteristics of Oxide Films Formed on Stainless Steel Cladding on Low Alloy Steel in Simulated PWR Primary Water Environments

  • Qi Xiong
  • Hongjuan Li
  • Zhanpeng LuEmail author
  • Junjie Chen
  • Qian Xiao
  • Jiarong Ma
  • Xiangkun Ru
  • Xue Liang
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)


The properties of oxide film formed on stainless steel (SS) cladding on low alloy steel (LAS) after immersion in simulated PWR primary water environments with different dissolved oxygen contents are investigated. The HAZ in the LAS consist of overheated crystal region, complete recrystallized region and incompletely recrystallized region, while SS cladding consist of austenite zone and austenite and ferrite mixing zone. Pitting appeared on 309L SS after immersion in high temperature water due to the dissolution of inclusions existed previously on 309L SS which contain higher ferrite content. Raman spectra and TEM results show that the outer layer is mainly Fe-rich spinel oxides while the inner layer is mainly Cr-rich oxides. Ni is mainly concentrate at the oxide/substrate interface due to the low oxygen affinity. The inner oxide layer on 308L SS is thinner than that on 309L SS, implying that ferrite distributed on austenite is not favorable for the growth of oxides. Reducing the oxygen content in PWR primary water favored the formation of spinel oxides.


Stainless steel cladding Pressurized water reactor Low alloy steel Oxide film High temperature water 



This work was supported by Shanghai Municipal Commission of Economy and Informatization No. T-221715003, National Natural Science Foundation of China (51571138), and the International Cooperative Project sponsored by Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality No. 13520721200.


  1. 1.
    K.S. Kim et al., Residual stress analysis of an overlay weld and a repair weld on the dissimilar butt weld. Nucl. Eng. Des. 239(12), 2771–2777 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. Xue et al., The effect of single tensile overload on stress corrosion cracking growth of stainless steel in a light water reactor environment. Nucl. Eng. Des. 241(3), 731–738 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J.C. Lippold, D.J. Kotecki, Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Stainless Steels (Wiley, New Jersey, NJ, 2015), p. 376Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. Kaçar, O. Baylan, An investigation of microstructure property relationships in dissimilar welds between martensitic and austenitic stainless steels. Mater. Des. 25(4), 317–329 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    K.H. Lee et al., Analysis of the master curve approach on the fracture toughness properties of SA508 Gr.4 N Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steels for reactor pressure vessels. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 527(15), 3329–3334 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    G.V. Rao et al., Experience with Bimetallic Weld Cracking. in Proceedings of International Symposium Fontevraud III, (French Nuclear Energy Society, France, 1994) 1, pp. 146–153Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    O.D. Bouvier, B. Yrieix, Grain Boundary Defects Initiation at the Outer Surface of Dissimilar welds. in Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Plants: Water Reactors meeting, (NACE International, Houston, 1995) 1, pp 93–104Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Laukkanen et al., Characteristics relevant to ductile failure of bimetallic welds and evaluation of transferability of fracture properties. Nucl. Eng. Des. 237(237), 1–15 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    G.F. Li, E.A. Charles, J. Congleton, Effect of post weld heat treatment on stress corrosion cracking of a low alloy steel to stainless steel transition Weld. Corros. Sci. 43(10), 1963–1983 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    R.H. Khalid et al., Microstructural evolution during friction surfacing of austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 on low carbon steel. Metallurg. Mater. Trans. A 44(1), 345–350 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    H.S. Peavy, D.R. Matthews, G. Tchobanoglous, Environmental Engineering (McGraw–Hill Book Company, New York, NY, 1985), p. 694Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Y. You, R.K. Shiue, The study of carbon migration in dissimilar welding of the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 20(15), 1429–1432 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J.W. Fu, Y.S. Yang, J.J. Guo, Formation of a blocky Ferrite in Fe–Cr–Ni alloy during directional solidification. J. Cryst. Growth 331(14), 3661–3666 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Hunter, M. Ferry, Phase formation during solidification of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel. Scripta Mater. 46(4), 253–258 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    N. Suutala, Effect of solidification conditions on the solidification mode in austenitic stainless steels. Metallurg. Mater. Trans. A 14(1), 191–197 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S.Q. Zheng et al., Mechanism of (Mg, Al, Ca)-oxide inclusion-induced pitting corrosion in 316L stainless steel exposed to sulphur environments containing chloride Ion. Corros. Sci. 67(1), 20–31 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Elbouj, R.W. Revie, Metallurgical factors in stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC). J. Solid State Electrochem. 13(7), 1091–1099 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    C.T. Kwok et al., Pitting and galvanic corrosion behavior of laser-welded stainless steels. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 176(1–3), 168 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    C.T. Kwok, et al., Investigation of Galvanic Corrosion in Laser-Welded Stainless Steel Sheets. in Paper presented at Fifth International Symposium on Laser Precision Microfabrication, 2004, p. 5662Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    G.D. Han et al., Properties of oxide films formed on 316L SS and model alloys with modified Ni, Cr and Si contents in high temperature water. Corros. Sci. 106, 157–171 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    N. Toshiyasu, K. Toshiaki, Clarification of chemical state for alloying elements in iron rust using a binary-phase potential–pH diagram and physical analyses. Corros. Sci. 45(5), 1073–1084 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Y.J. Kim, P. Andresen, Data quality, issues and guidelines for ECP measurement in high temperature water. Corrosion 59, 584–597 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    B. Beverskog, I. Puigdomenech, Revised pourbaix diagrams for iron at 25–300 °C. Corros. Sci. 38, 2121–2135 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M.C. Sun et al., Oxidation of 316 stainless steel in supercritical water. Corros. Sci. 51(5), 1069–1072 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    K.I. Choudhry et al., Corrosion of engineering materials in a supercritical water cooled reactor: Characterization of oxide scales on alloy 800H and stainless steel 316. Corros. Sci. 100(11), 222–230 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    N.K. Das et al., Early stage SCC initiation analysis of FCC Fe–Cr–Ni ternary alloy at 288 °C: A quantum chemical molecular dynamics approach. Corros. Sci. 51(4), 908–913 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Q.S. Guo et al., Galvanic effect between ferrite and austenite in 2205 duplex stainless steel. Corros. Protect. 36(12), 1119–1123 (2015)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Y. Wang, X.Q. Cheng, X.G. Li, Electrochemical behavior and compositions of passive films formed on the constituent phases of duplex stainless steel without coupling. Electrochem. Commun. 57, 56–60 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qi Xiong
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hongjuan Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zhanpeng Lu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Junjie Chen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Qian Xiao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jiarong Ma
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xiangkun Ru
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xue Liang
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Materials School of Materials Science and EngineeringShanghai UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special SteelsShanghai UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Key Laboratory for MicrostructureShanghai UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations