The Qiong da yi shi 窮達以時 (Poverty or Success Is a Matter of Timing) and the Concept of Heaven and Humans in Early Confucianism

  • Liang Tao 
Part of the Dao Companions to Chinese Philosophy book series (DCCP, volume 10)


The Guodian bamboo texts appear to suggest that the notion of the division between Humans and Heaven is a basic precept of early Confucianism, with a discernible influence on Mencius. Mencius differs from Xunzi, whose concept of the division between Humans and Heaven is inherently more complex, and which scholars in the past have often taken a simplistic view of. Mencius and Xunzi both propounded ideas of the division as well as the unity of Humans and Heaven, but they differ in specific terms on practical levels.


Poverty or success is a matter of timing Division and unity of humans and heaven Mencius Xunzi 


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Liang Tao 
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Chinese ClassicsRenmin University of ChinaBeijingChina

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