Advertisement

Nutraceuticals in Hepatic and Pancreatic Diseases

  • Sharon M. Gwaltney-BrantEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The unique anatomy and physiology of the liver make it especially susceptible to insult from a variety of metabolic, infectious, immune-mediated, toxic, and carcinogenic sources. Many nutraceutical compounds have been utilized in an attempt to aid in the support or improvement of liver health through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, antiproliferative, or antineoplastic mechanisms. Similarly, many nutraceuticals have been investigated for their utility in managing pancreatic disorders, especially diabetes mellitus. This chapter describes the pathophysiology and effects of select nutraceuticals on the liver and pancreas.

Keywords

Antioxidant Dietary supplement Hepatoprotective Hepatotoxicity Hepatotropic Herbal Liver Nutraceutical 

References

  1. Afolayan AJ, Olubunmi AW (2014) Dietary supplements in the management of hypertension and diabetes – a review. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 11(3):248–258PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aleynik SI, Leo SM, Aleynik MK et al (2000) Polyenylphosphatidylcholine protects against alcohol but not iron-induced oxidative stress in the liver. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 24(2):196–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ames BN (1998) Micronutrients prevent cancer and delay aging. Toxicol Lett 102–103:5–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson RA (2000) Chromium in the prevention and control of diabetes. Diabetes Metab 26(1):22–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Athuraliya T, Nimmi C, Jones AL (2009) Prolonged N-acetylcysteine therapy in late acetaminophen poisoning associated with acute liver failure--a need to be more cautious? Crit Care 13(3):144PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Avizeh R, Najafzadeh H, Razi Jalali M et al (2010) Evaluation of prophylactic and therapeutic effects of silymarin and N-acetylcysteine in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in cats. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 33(1):95–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Azzi A, Ricciarelli R, Zingg M (2002) Non-antioxidant molecular functions of alpha-tocopherol (Vitamin E). FEBS Lett 519(1–3):8–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bateman D, Dear JW, Thanacoody HK et al (2014) Reduction of adverse effects from intravenous acetylcysteine treatment for paracetamol poisoning: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 383(9918):697–704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bémeur C, Vaquero J, Desjardins P et al (2010) N-acetylcysteine attenuates cerebral complications of non-acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure in mice: antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Metab Brain Dis 25(2):241–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bischoff K, Ramaiah SA (2007) Liver toxicity. In: Gupta R (ed) Veterinary toxicology: basic and clinical principles. Academic Press, Amsterdam, pp 145–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bottiglieri T (2002) S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAMe): from the bench to the bedside--molecular basis of a pleiotropic molecule. Am J Clin Nutr 76(5):1151S–1157SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brandon-Warner EE, Ashley L et al (2012) Silibinin (Milk Thistle) potentiates ethanol-dependent hepatocellular carcinoma progression in male mice. Cancer Lett 326(1):88–95PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown AC (2017) Liver toxicity related to herbs and dietary supplements: online table of case reports. Part 2 of 5 series. Food Chem Toxicol 107:472–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bustamante J, Lodge J, Marcocci L et al (1998) Alpha-lipoic acid in liver metabolism and disease. Free Radic Biol Med 24(6):1023–1039PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cantürk NZ, Cantürk Z, Utan N et al (1998) Cytoprotective effects of alpha tocopherol against liver injury induced by extrahepatic biliary obstruction. East Afr Med J 75(2):77–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Center SA (2004) Metabolic, antioxidant, nutraceutical, probiotic, and herbal therapies relating to the management of hepatobiliary disorders. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 34(1):67–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Center SA, Randolph J, Warner K et al (2005a) The effects of S-adenosylmethionine on clinical pathology and redox potential in the red blood cell, liver, and bile of clinically normal cats. J Vet Int Med 19(3):303–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Center SA, Warner K, McCabe J et al (2005b) Evaluation of the influence of S-adenosylmethionine on systemic and hepatic effects of prednisolone in dogs. Am J Vet Res 66(2):330–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Christie L, Opii W, Head E et al (2009) Short-term supplementation with acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid alters plasma protein carbonyl levels but does not improve cognition in aged beagles. Exp Gerontol 44(12):752–759PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Crawford JM (2005) Liver and biliary tract. In: Kumar VA, Abbas V, Fausto N (eds) Robbins and Cotran’s pathologic basis of disease. Saunders, St. Louis, MO, pp 877–937Google Scholar
  21. DeClementi C (2018) Prevention and treatment of poisoning. In: Gupta R (ed) Veterinary toxicology: basic and clinical principles. Academic Press, Amsterdam, pp 1141–1159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. DerMarderosian A, Beutler JA (2014) The review of natural products, 8th edn. Clinical Drug Information, LLC, St. Louis, MOGoogle Scholar
  23. Duarte S, Baber J, Fujii T, Coito AJ (2015) Matrix metalloproteinases in liver injury, repair and fibrosis. Matrix Biol 44–46:147–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dunayer EK (2006) New findings on the effects of xylitol ingestion in dogs. Vet Med 101(12):791–796Google Scholar
  25. Elmore S (2007) Apoptosis: a review of programmed cell death. Toxicol Pathol 35(4):495–516PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Friedel HA, Goa KL, Benfield P (1989) S-adenosyl-L-methionine. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential in liver dysfunction and affective disorders in relation to its physiological role in cell metabolism. Drugs 38(3):389–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gal EM (1965) Reversal of selective toxicity of (-)-alpha-lipoic acid by thiamine in thiamine-deficient rats. Nature 207(996):535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gupta RC, Srivastava A, Lall R (2018) Toxicity potential of nutraceuticals. In: Nicolotti O (ed) Computational toxicology: methods and protocol. Springer, New York, NY, pp 367–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gwaltney-Brant SM (2016) Nutraceuticals in hepatic diseases. In: Gupta R (ed) Nutraceuticals: efficacy, safety and toxicity. Academic Press, Amsterdam, pp 87–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hill AS, O’Neill S, Rogers QR et al (2001) Antioxidant prevention of Heinz body formation and oxidative injury in cats. Am J Vet Res 62(3):370–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hill AS, Werner JA, Rogers QR et al (2004) Lipoic acid is 10 times more toxic in cats than reported in humans, dogs or rats. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 88(3–4):150–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jacob RA, Sotoudeh G (2002) Vitamin C function and status in chronic disease. Nutr Clin Care 5(2):66–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jacob S, Henriksen JE, Schiemann A et al (1995) Enhancement of glucose disposal in patients with Type 2 diabetes by alpha-lipoic acid. Arzneimittelforschung 45(8):872–874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Jaeschke H (2008) Toxic responses of the liver. In: Klaasen CD (ed) Casarett and Doul’s toxicology, the basic science of poisons. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 557–582Google Scholar
  35. Jubb KV, Stent AW (2016) Pancreas. In: Maxie MG (ed) Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s pathology of domestic animals. Elsevier, St. Louis, MO, pp 353–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lee W, Weng SH, Su N (2015) Individual phosphatidylcholine species analysis by RP-HPLC-ELSD for determination of polyenylphosphatidylcholine in lecithins. J Agric Food Chem 63(15):3851–3858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Leveque JI (1969) Ascorbic acid in treatment of the canine distemper complex. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 64(11):997–999PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Loftin EG, Herold LV (2009) Therapy and outcome of suspected alpha lipoic acid toxicity in two dogs. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 19(5):501–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Malewicz B, Wang Z, Jiang C et al (2006) Enhancement of mammary carcinogenesis in two rodent models by silymarin dietary supplements. Carcinogenesis 27(9):1739–1747PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mato JM, Corrales FJ, Lu SC et al (2002) S-adenosylmethionine: a control switch that regulates liver function. FASEB J 16(1):15–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Milgram NW, Araujo JA, Hagen TM et al (2007) Acetyl-L-carnitine and alpha-lipoic acid supplementation of aged beagle dogs improves learning in two landmark discrimination tests. FASEB J 21(13):3756–3762PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mittelman NS, Engiles JB, Murphy L et al (2016) Presumptive iatrogenic microcystin-associated liver failure and encephalopathy in a Holsteiner gelding. J Vet Intern Med 30(5):1747–1751PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. National Research Council (1987) Vitamin tolerance of animals. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  44. Podda M, Tritschler HJ, Ulrich H et al (1994) Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation prevents symptoms of Vitamin E deficiency. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 204(1):98–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Potenza MA, Marasciulo M, Tarquinio M et al (2007) EGCG, a green tea polyphenol, improves endothelial function and insulin sensitivity, reduces blood pressure, and protects against myocardial I/R injury in SHR. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 292(5):E1378–E1387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Puschner B (2018) Mushroom toxins. In: Gupta R (ed) Veterinary toxicology: basic and clinical principles. Academic Press, Amsterdam, pp 955–966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Reusch C (2010) Feline diabetes mellitus. In: Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC (eds) Textbook of veterinary internal medicine. St. Louis, MO, Saunders, pp 1796–1816Google Scholar
  48. Saito C, Zwingmann C, Jaeschke H (2010) Novel mechanisms of protection against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in mice by glutathione and N-acetylcysteine. Hepatology 51(1):246–254PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schmid RD, Hovda LR (2016) Acute hepatic failure in a dog after xylitol ingestion. J Med Toxicol 12(2):201–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Seeff LB, Bonkovsky HL, Navarro VJ et al (2015) Herbal products and the liver: a review of adverse effects and mechanisms. Gastroenterology 148(3):517–532.e3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sellon RK (2013) Acetaminophen. In: Peterson ME, Talcott PA (eds) Small animal toxicology. Saunders, St. Louis, MO, pp 423–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sheela CG, Augusti KT (1992) Antidiabetic effects of S-allyl cysteine sulphoxide isolated from garlic Allium sativum Linn. Indian J Exp Biol 30(6):523–526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Silver RJ (2012) Clinical applications of nutraceutical and botanical compounds in companion animals. Proceedings of the Wild West Veterinary Conference. Reno, NVGoogle Scholar
  54. Skorupski KA, Hammond GM, Irish AM et al (2011) Prospective randomized clinical trial assessing the efficacy of denamarin for prevention of CCNU-induced hepatopathy in tumor-bearing dogs. J Vet Int Med 25(4):838–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Stalker MJ, Hayes MA (2007) Liver and biliary system. In: Maxie MG (ed) Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s pathology of domestic animals. Elsevier, St. Louis, MO, pp 297–388Google Scholar
  56. Steiner JM (2010) Canine pancreatic disease. In: Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC (eds) Textbook of veterinary internal medicine. Saunders, St. Louis, MO, pp 1695–1704Google Scholar
  57. Taboada J (2017) Clinical update on the use of nutraceuticals in the management of canine and feline liver disease. Proceedings of the Southwest Veterinary SymposiumGoogle Scholar
  58. Tang X, Xia Z, Yu J (2008) An experimental study of hemolysis induced by onion (Allium Cepa) poisoning in dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 31(2):143–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Vandeweerd JM, Cambier C, Gustin P (2013) Nutraceuticals for canine liver disease: assessing the evidence. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 43(5):1171–1179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Vogel GB, Tuchweber T, Trost W, Mengs U (1984) Protection by silibinin against amanita phalloides intoxication in beagles. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 73(3):355–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wallace KP, Center SA, Hickford SF et al (2002) S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) for the treatment of acetaminophen toxicity in a dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 38(3):246–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wang K (2014) Molecular mechanisms of hepatic apoptosis. Cell Death Dis 5(1):e996–e910PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Watkins PB, Seef LB (2006) Drug-induced liver injury: summary of a single topic clinical research conference. Hepatology 43:618–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Webster CRL, Cooper J (2009) Therapeutic use of cytoprotective agents in canine and feline hepatobiliary disease. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 39(3):631–652PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Yang R, Miki K, He S, Kileen ME et al (2009) Prolonged treatment with N-acetylcysteine delays liver recovery from acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Crit Care 13(2):R55PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Zicker SC, Hagen TM, Golder C et al (2002) Safety of long-term feeding of Dl- α -lipoic acid and its effect on reduced glutathione: oxidized glutathione ratios in beagles. Vet Ther 3(2):167–176PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Veterinary Information NetworkMahometUSA

Personalised recommendations