Advertisement

Fenugreek in Health and Disease

  • Dinesh Kumar
  • Ramdas Singh Wangkheirakpam
  • Anu Rahal
  • Jitendra K. Malik
Chapter

Abstract

Fenugreek is an herb which has been used in traditional medicines for centuries in wound healing, as an aphrodisiac, for promotion of lactation, etc. The consumption of the seeds as a spice results in different medicinal effects such as hypocholesterolemic, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial, anthelmintic, anticancer, and galactogogue. Flavonoids, saponins, pyridine alkaloids, and steroidal sapogenins are some of the phytochemicals present in the plant. The plant is also embraced for its high content of important vitamins, minerals, protein and amino acids, and fibers making it a nutritious fodder for livestock. Extracts of the leaves and seeds of fenugreek are considered safe and are found to have potential therapeutic explicabilities in the treatment and/or management of diabetes, cancer, toxicities, cardiovascular diseases, physical injuries, and hormonal imbalances. The seeds and leaves of this plant are now being incorporated into animal, bird, and fish foods to increase feed intake, to promote weight gain, and to decrease the feed conversion ratio. The addition of fenugreek in the drinking water of poultry reduces stress, and this can be an important strategy to replace the use of antibiotics such as enrofloxacin as an anti-stress agent, and thus the issues of antibiotic residues in meat, as well as widely developing antibiotic resistance, would be less.

Keywords

Nutraceutical Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecumPhytochemicals Sapogenins Trigonelline Diosgenin Galactomannan 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are thankful to all the scientists, scholars, and staff of the Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Izzatnagar, Bareilly, India, for their support and cooperation in completion of this book chapter.

References

  1. Abdel-Barry JA, Abdel-Hassan IA, Al-Hakiem MH (1997) Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum leaf in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 58(3):149–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Acharya SN, Basu SK, Thomas JE (2007) Medicinal properties of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.): a review of the evidence based information. Adv Med Plant Res:81–122Google Scholar
  3. Adil S, Qureshi S, Pattoo RA (2015) A review on positive effects of fenugreek as feed additive in poultry production. Int J Poult Sci 14(12):664–669Google Scholar
  4. Ahmad A, Alghamdi SS, Mahmood K et al (2016) Fenugreek a multipurpose crop: potentialities and improvements. Saudi J Biol Sci 23(2):300–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahmed SI, Hayat MQ, Zahid S et al (2017) Isolation and identification of flavonoids from anticancer and neuroprotective extracts of Trigonella foenum graecum. Trop J Pharm Res 16(6):1391–1398Google Scholar
  6. Ajabnoor MA, Tilmisany AK (1988) Effect of Trigonella foenum graceum on blood glucose levels in normal and alloxan-diabetic mice. J Ethnopharmacol 22(1):45–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Alloui N, Aksa SB, Alloui MN et al (2012) Utilization of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) as growth promoter for broiler chickens. J World Poult Res 2(2):25–27Google Scholar
  8. Alsemari A, Alkhodairy F, Aldakan A et al (2014) The selective cytotoxic anti-cancer properties and proteomic analysis of Trigonella foenum-graecum. BMC Complement Altern Med 14(1):114PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Altuntaş E, Özgöz E, Taşer ÖF (2005) Some physical properties of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum L.) seeds. J Food Eng 71(1):37–43Google Scholar
  10. Anarthe SJ, Sunitha D, Raju MG (2014) Immunomodulatory activity for methanolic extract of Trigonella foenum graecum whole plant in wistar albino rats. Am J Phytomed Clin Ther 2(9):1081–1092Google Scholar
  11. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (A.O.A.C) (1990) Official methods of analysis, 15th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  12. Barik NK (2017) Freshwater fish for nutrition security in India: evidence from FAO data. Aquacult Rep 7:1–6Google Scholar
  13. Beaud D, Tailliez P, Anba-Mondoloni J (2005) Genetic characterization of the β-glucuronidase enzyme from a human intestinal bacterium, Ruminococcus gnavus. Microbiology 151(7):2323–2330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Belaïd-Nouira Y, Bakhta H, Haouas Z et al (2013a) Fenugreek seeds, a hepatoprotector forage crop against chronic AlCl3 toxicity. BMC Vet Res 9(1):22PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Belaïd-Nouira Y, Bakhta H, Haouas Z et al (2013b) Fenugreek seeds reduce aluminum toxicity associated with renal failure in rats. Nutr Res Pract 7(6):466–474PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Benzie IF, Wachtel-Galor S (2011) Herbal medicine: biomolecular and clinical aspects, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, p 410Google Scholar
  17. Betty R (2008) The many healing virtues of fenugreek. Spice India 1:17–19Google Scholar
  18. Bhalke RD, Anarthe SJ, Sasane KD et al (2009) Antinociceptive activity of Trigonella foenum graecum leaves and seeds (Fabaceae). Int J Pharm Technol 8(2):57–59Google Scholar
  19. Bhat BG, Sambaia K, Chandrasekhara N (1985) The effect of feeding fenugreek and ginger on bile composition in the albino rats. Nutr Rep Int 32:1145–1151Google Scholar
  20. Bin-Hafeez B, Haque R, Parvez S et al (2003) Immunomodulatory effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) extract in mice. Int Immunopharmacol 3(2):257–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Boban PT, Nambisan B, Sudhakaran PR (2009) Dietary mucilage promotes regression of atheromatous lesions in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Phytother Res 23(5):725–730PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Booupathy LK, Venkatachalam S, Natarajan N (2016) Chemopreventive effect of myrtenal on bacterial enzyme activity and the development of 1, 2-dimethyl hydrazine-induced aberrant crypt foci in Wistar rats. J Food Drug Anal 24(1):206–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Buchineni M, Kondaveti S (2016) In-vitro anthelmintic activity of fenugreek leaves (aqueous extract) in Indian earthworms. Pharm Innov J 5(4, Part B):70–72Google Scholar
  24. Chatterjee S, Variyar SP, Sharma A (2010) Bioactive lipid constituents of fenugreek. Food Chem 119(1):349–353Google Scholar
  25. Chen X, Guo C, Kong J (2012) Oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. Neural Regen Res 7(5):376–385PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Corey KE, Cohen DE (2015) Lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in liver disease. In: De Groot LJ, Chrousos G, Dungan K, et al. (ed) Endotext (Internet), MDText.com, Inc., South Dartmouth, MA, 2000-. (Updated 2015 Jun 27). Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK326742
  27. Dangi R, Misar A, Tamhankar S, Rao S (2014) Diosgenin content in some Trigonella species. Indian J Adv Plant Res 1:47–51Google Scholar
  28. Degirmencioglu T, Unal H, Ozbilgin S et al (2016) Effect of ground fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum) on feed consumption and milk performance in Anatolian water buffaloes. Arch Anim Breed 59(3):345–349Google Scholar
  29. Devasena T, Menon VP (2003) Fenugreek affects the activity of β-glucuronidase and mucinase in the colon. Phytother Res 17(9):1088–1091PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Dixit P, Ghaskadbi S, Mohan H et al (2005) Antioxidant properties of germinated fenugreek seeds. Phytother Res 19(11):977–983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Dymock W, Warden CJH, Hooper D (2005) Pharmacographic indica. Srishti Book Distributors, New Delhi, pp 401–404Google Scholar
  32. Edison S (1995) Spices-research support to productivity. In: Ravi N (ed) The Hindu. survey of Indian agriculture. Kasturi and Sons Ltd., Madras, pp 101–105Google Scholar
  33. Elbushra ME (2012) Effect of dietary Fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum) as natural feed addition on broiler chicks performance. J Sci Technol 13:27–31Google Scholar
  34. El-Nor SAH, Khattab HM, Al-Alamy HA et al (2007) Effects of some medicinal plants seeds in the rations on the productive performance of lactating buffaloes. Int J Dairy Sci 2:348–355Google Scholar
  35. El-Shayeb NMA, Mabrouk AM (1984) Utilization of some edible and medicinal plants to inhibit aflatoxin formation. Nutr Rep Int 29:273–282Google Scholar
  36. Figer B, Pissurlenkar R, Ambre P et al (2017) Treatment of gastric ulcers with fenugreek seed extract; In-Vitro, In-Vivo and In-Silico approaches. Indian J Pharm Sci 79(5):724–730Google Scholar
  37. Francis G, Kerem Z, Makkar PS et al (2002) The biological action of saponins in animals systems: a review. Br J Nutr 88(6):587–605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Ghafagaai T, Farid H, Pourafkari A (1980) In-vitro study of the anthelmintic action of Trigonella foenum graecum L. grown in Iran. Iran J Publ Health 9(1–4):21–26Google Scholar
  39. Gupta A, Gupta R, Lal B (2001) Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds on glycaemic control and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. J Assoc Physicians India 49:1057–1061PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hamden K, Masmoudi H, Carreau S et al (2010) Immunomodulatory, β-cell, and neuroprotective actions of fenugreek oil from alloxan-induced diabetes. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 32(3):437–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Haouala R, Hawala S, El-Ayeb A et al (2008) Aqueous and organic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. inhibit the mycelia growth of fungi. J Environ Sci (China) 20(12):1453–1457Google Scholar
  42. Ismail A (2000) Effect of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella Foenum-graecum L.) as feed additive on sheep performance in the North Western coast of Egypt. In: Proc 3rd all Africa Conf. Anim. Agric. 811th Conf, Egyptian Soc. Anim. Prod. Alexandria, Egypt, pp 6–9Google Scholar
  43. Jin Y, Shi Y, Zou Y et al (2014) Fenugreek prevents the development of STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy in a rat model of diabetes. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/259368Google Scholar
  44. Kagan BL, Selsted ME, Ganz T, Lehrer RI (1990) Antimicrobial defensin peptides form voltage-dependent ion-permeable channels in planar lipid bilayer membranes. Proc Natl Acad Sci 87(1):210–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Kalailingam P, Kannaian B, Tamilmani E et al (2014) Efficacy of natural diosgenin on cardiovascular risk, insulin secretion, and beta cells in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Phytomedicine 21(10):1154–1161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Kalshetti PB, Alluri R, Mohan V et al (2015) Effects of 4-hydroxyisoleucine from fenugreek seeds on depression-like behavior in socially isolated olfactory bulbectomized rats. Pharmacogn Mag 11(Suppl 3):S388PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Kamboj SS, Chopra K, Sandhir R (2009) Hyperglycemia-induced alterations in synaptosomal membrane fluidity and activity of membrane bound enzymes: beneficial effect of N-acetylcysteine supplementation. Neuroscience 162(2):349–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Kanchan DM, Somani GS, Peshattiwar VV et al (2016) Renoprotective effect of diosgenin in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Pharmacol Rep 68(2):370–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kandhare AD, Bodhankar SL, Mohan V et al (2015) Acute and repeated doses (28 days) oral toxicity study of glycosides based standardized fenugreek seed extract in laboratory mice. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 72(2):323–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kaviarasan S, Anuradha CV (2007) Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seed polyphenols protect liver from alcohol toxicity: a role on hepatic detoxification system and apoptosis. Pharmazie 62(4):299–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kaviarasan S, Ramamurty N, Gunasekaran P et al (2006) Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seed extract prevents ethanol-induced toxicity and apoptosis in Chang liver cells. Alcohol Alcohol 41(3):267–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kaviarasan S, Naik GH, Gangabhagirathi R et al (2007) In-vitro studies on antiradical and antioxidant activities of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds. Food Chem 103(1):31–37Google Scholar
  53. Khader M, Eckl PM, Bresgen N (2007) Effects of aqueous extracts of medicinal plants on MNNG-treated rat hepatocytes in primary cultures. J Ethnopharmacol 112(1):199–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Khadse CD, Kakde RB (2010) In-vitro anthelmintic activity of Fenugreek seeds extract against Pheritima posthuma. Int J Res Pharm Sci 1(3):267–269Google Scholar
  55. Khorshidian N, Yousefi Asli M, Arab M et al (2016) Fenugreek: potential applications as a functional food and nutraceutical. Nutr Food Sci Res 3(1):5–16Google Scholar
  56. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD (2002) Indian medicinal plants, vol I. International Book Distributors, Dehradun, India, pp 700–701Google Scholar
  57. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD (2003) Indian medicinal plants with illustrations, vol 3, 2nd edn. Oriental Enterprises, Dehradun, India, pp 982–983Google Scholar
  58. Ktari N, Trabelsi I, Bardaa S et al (2017) Antioxidant and hemolytic activities, and effects in rat cutaneous wound healing of a novel polysaccharide from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds. Int J Biol Macromol 95:625–634PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Lepage C, Léger DY, Bertrand J et al (2011) Diosgenin induces death receptor-5 through activation of p38 pathway and promotes TRAIL-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Cancer Lett 30(2):193–202Google Scholar
  60. Li F, Fernandez PP, Rajendran P et al (2010) Diosgenin, a steroidal saponin, inhibits STAT3 signaling pathway leading to suppression of proliferation and chemosensitization of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Cancer Lett 292(2):197–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lim SJ, Jang E, Lee SH et al (2013) Antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from freshwater aquacultures and prediction of the persistence and toxicity of antimicrobials in the aquatic environment. J Environ Sci Health 48(6):495–504Google Scholar
  62. Liu MJ, Wang Z, Ju Y et al (2005) Diosgenin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human leukemia K562 cells with the disruption of Ca2+ homeostasis. Cancer Chem Pharmacol 55(1):79–90Google Scholar
  63. Luan G, Wang Y, Wang Z et al (2018) Flavonoid glycosides from fenugreek seeds regulate glycolipid metabolism by improving mitochondrial function in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro. J Agric Food Chem 66:3169–3178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Lust JB (1986) The herb book. Bantam Books Inc, New York, pp 1–55Google Scholar
  65. Madar Z, Shomer IJ (1990) Polysaccharide composition of a gel fraction derived from fenugreek and its effect on starch digestion and bile acid absorption in rats. J Agric Food Chem 38(7):1535–1539Google Scholar
  66. Mahady GB (2009) Medicinal plants for the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease. Ethnopharmacology II:75–99Google Scholar
  67. Malviya KG, Babhulkar MW, Mali P et al (2010) Evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seed extracts by using carrageenan induced rat paw edema. Drug Invent Today 2(2):109–111Google Scholar
  68. Mathern JR, Raatz SK, Thomas W et al (2009) Effect of fenugreek fiber on satiety, blood glucose and insulin response and energy intake in obese subjects. Phytother Res 23(11):1543–1548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Meghwal M, Goswamy TK (2012) A review on the functional properties, nutritional content, medicinal utilization and potential application of fenugreek. J Food Process Technol 3:9Google Scholar
  70. Mendis S, Puska P, Norrving B et al (2011) Global atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control. World Health Organization, Geneva, pp 3–18Google Scholar
  71. Mercan N, Guvensen A, Celik A et al (2007) Antimicrobial activity and pollen composition of honey samples collected from different provinces in Turkey. Nat Prod Res 21(3):187–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Mesallam DI, Hamid OIA, Ibrahem NE (2018) Ethanolic extract of fenugreek seeds moderates dimethoate-induced pancreatic damage in male rats. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25(4):3894–3904Google Scholar
  73. Mir Z, Mir PS, Acharya SN et al (1998) Comparison of alfalfa and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) silages supplemented with barley grain on performance of growing steers. Can J Anim Sci 78(3):343–349Google Scholar
  74. Moghadam FH, Vakili-Zarch B, Shafiee M et al (2013) Fenugreek seed extract treats peripheral neuropathy in pyridoxine induced neuropathic mice. Excli J 12:282–290PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Moradi N, Moradi K (2013) Physiological and pharmaceutical effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) as a multipurpose and valuable medicinal plant. Global J Med Plant Res 1(2):199–206Google Scholar
  76. Muhammed DO, Salih NA (2012) Effect of application of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) on skin wound healing in rabbits. AL-Qadisiya J Vet Med Sci 11(2):86–93Google Scholar
  77. Muraki E, Hayashi Y, Chiba H et al (2011) Dose-dependent effects, safety and tolerability of fenugreek in diet-induced metabolic disorders in rats. Lipids Health Dis 10(1):240PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Naicker N, Nagiah S, Phulukdaree A et al (2016) Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract, 4- hydroxyisoleucine, and metformin stimulate proximal insulin signaling and increase expression of glycogenic enzymes and GLUT2 in HepG2 cells. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 14(2):114–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Narasimhamurthy K, Viswanatha S, Ramesh BS (1999) Acute and subchronic toxicity assessment of debitterized fenugreek powder in the mouse and rat. Food Chem Toxicol 37(8):831–838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Narender T, Puri A, Khaliq T et al (2006) 4-Hydroxyisoleucine an unusual amino acid as antidyslipidemic and antihyperglycemic agent. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 16(2):293–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Norziah MH, Fezea FA, Bhar R et al (2015) Effect of extraction solvents on antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Int Food Res J 22(3):1261–1271Google Scholar
  82. Oddepally R, Guruprasad L (2015) Isolation, purification, and characterization of a stable defensin-like antifungal peptide from Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds. Biochem (Moscow) 80(3):332–342Google Scholar
  83. Olaiya CO, Soetan KO (2014) A review of the health benefits of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.): nutritional, Biochemical and pharmaceutical perspectives. Am J Soc Issues Human:3–12Google Scholar
  84. Ou S, Kwok KC, Li Y et al (2001) In-vitro study of possible role of dietary fiber in lowering postprandial serum glucose. J Agr Food Chem 49(2):1026–1029Google Scholar
  85. Ouzir M, El Bairi K, Amzari S (2016) Toxicological properties of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum). Food Chem Toxicol 96:145–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Pandian RS, Anuradha CV, Viswanathan P (2002) Gastroprotective effect of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) on experimental gastric ulcer in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 81(3):393–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Pekiner DB, Evcimen DN, Nebioğlu S (2005) Diabetes-induced decrease in rat brain microsomal Ca2+-ATPase activity. Cell Biochem Funct 23(4):239–243Google Scholar
  88. Petit P, Sauvaire Y, Ponsin G et al (1993) Effects of a fenugreek seed extract on feeding behaviour in the rat: metabolic endocrine correlates. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 45(2):369–374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Petit PR, Sauvaire YD, Hillaire-Buys DM et al (1995) Steroid saponins from fenugreek seeds: extraction, purification, and pharmacological investigation on feeding behavior and plasma cholesterol. Steroids 60(10):674–680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Preet A, Gupta BL, Siddiqui MR et al (2005) Restoration of ultrastructural and biochemical changes in alloxan-induced diabetic rat sciatic nerve on treatment with Na3VO4 and Trigonella—a promising antidiabetic agent. Mol Cell Biochem 278(1–2):21–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Prema A, Justin Thenmozhi A, Manivasagam T et al (2017) Fenugreek seed powder attenuated aluminum chloride-induced tau pathology, oxidative stress, and inflammation in a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimer’s Dis 60(s1):S209–S220Google Scholar
  92. Pribac G, Ardelean A, Czapar M et al (2009) Trigonella foenum-graecum and Trigonella policreata seeds extract exert a protective action of alcohol toxicity in BRL3A rat liver cells. Stud Univ Vasile Goldis Arad Stiintele Vietii 19(1):87–93Google Scholar
  93. Priya V, Jananie RK, Vijayalakshmi K (2011) GC/MS determination of bioactive components of Trigonella foenum-grecum. J Chem Pharm Res 3(5):35–40Google Scholar
  94. Raju J, Gupta D, Rao AR et al (2001) Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) seed powder improves glucose homeostasis in alloxan diabetic rat tissues by reversing the altered glycolytic, gluconeogenic and lipogenic enzymes. Mol Cell Biochem 224(1–2):45–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Raju J, Patlolla JMR, Swamy MV et al (2004) Diosgenin, a steroid saponin of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek), inhibits azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci formation in F344 rats and induces apoptosis in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13(8):1392–1398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Randhir R, Lin YT, Shetty K (2004) Phenolics, their antioxidant and antimicrobial activity in dark germinated fenugreek sprouts in response to peptide and phytochemical elicitors. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 13(3):295–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Rao AV (2003) Herbal cure for common diseases. Fusion Books, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  98. Rashmi Y, Rahul K (2011) Study of phytochemical constituents and pharmacological actions of Trigonella foenum-graecum: a review. Int J Pharm Technol 3:1022–1028Google Scholar
  99. Reddy RR, Srinivasan K (2011) Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds in mice under lithogenic condition. J Food Biochem 35(6):1619–1626Google Scholar
  100. Rjat H, Taparia A (1990) Utilization of methi straw by cattle. Indian J Anim Sci 60(11):1380–1381Google Scholar
  101. Roberts KT (2011) The potential of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) as a functional food and nutraceutical and its effects on glycemia and lipidemia. J Med Food 14(12):1485–1489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Roohi Z, Imanpoor MR, Jafari V et al (2017) The use of fenugreek seed meal in fish diets: growth performance, haematological and biochemical parameters, survival and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Aquac Res 48(3):1209–1215Google Scholar
  103. Saber B, Abdeldjelil MC, Benazzouz H et al (2017) Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum): an alternative antistress in broiler chickens in Algeria. Der Pharm Lett 9(1):64–69Google Scholar
  104. Sauvaire Y, Ribes G, Baccou JC et al (1991) Implication of steroid saponins and sapogenins in the hypocholesterolemic effect of fenugreek. Lipids 26(3):191–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Sauvaire Y, Petit P, Broca C et al (1998) 4-Hydroxyisoleucine: a novel amino acid potentiator of insulin secretion. Diabetes 47(2):206–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Saxena R, Rathore SS, Barnwal P et al (2013) Effect of cryogenic grinding on recovery of diosgenin content in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) genotypes. Int J Seed Spices 3(1):26–30Google Scholar
  107. Shabbeer S, Sobolewski M, Anchoori RK et al (2009) Fenugreek: a naturally occurring edible spice as an anticancer agent. Cancer Biol Ther 8(3):272–278PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Sharma RD, Sarkar A, Hazra DK et al (1996) Hypolipidemic effect of fenugreek seeds: a chronic study in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Phytother Res 10(4):332–334Google Scholar
  109. Sharma V, Singh P, Rani A (2017) Antimicrobial activity of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek). Eur J Exp Biol 7(1):4Google Scholar
  110. Shishodia S, Aggarwal BB (2006) Diosgenin inhibits osteoclastogenesis, invasion, and proliferation through the downregulation of Akt, IκB kinase activation and NF-κB-regulated gene expression. Oncogene 25(10):1463–1473PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Son IS, Kim JH, Sohn HY et al (2007) Antioxidative and hypolipidemic effects of diosgenin, a steroidal saponin of yam (Dioscorea spp.), on high-cholesterol fed rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 71(12):3063–3071PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Sowmya P, Rajyalakshmi P (1999) Hypocholesterolemic effect of germinated fenugreek seeds in human subjects. Plant Food Hum Nutr 53(4):359–365Google Scholar
  113. Srinivasan K (2006) Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum): a review of health beneficial physiological effects. Food Rev Int 22(2):203–224Google Scholar
  114. Sumitra M, Manikandan P, Suguna L et al (2000) Study of dermal wound healing activity of Trigonella foenum graceum seeds in rats. J Clin Biochem Nutr 28(2):59–67Google Scholar
  115. Tavakoli MB, Kiani A, Roayaei M (2015) The effects of fenugreek on radiation induced toxicity for human blood T-cells in radiotherapy. J Med Signals Sens 5(3):176PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Thirunavukkarasu V, Anuradha CV (2007) Gastroprotective effect of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) on experimental gastric ulcer in rats. J Herbs Spices Med Plants 12(3):13–25Google Scholar
  117. Tiran D (2003) The use of fenugreek for breast feeding woman. Comp Ther Nurs Midwifery 9(3):155–156Google Scholar
  118. Tripathi S, Maurya AK, Kahrana M et al (2012) Immunomodulatory property of ethanolic extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum leaves on mice. Der Pharm Lett 4(2):708–713Google Scholar
  119. Uemura T, Hirai S, Mizoguchi N et al (2010) Diosgenin present in fenugreek improves glucose metabolism by promoting adipocyte differentiation and inhibiting inflammation in adipose tissues. Mol Nutr Food Res 54(11):1596–1608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Venkata KCN, Bagchi D, Bishayee A (2017) A small plant with big benefits: fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn.) for disease prevention and health promotion. Mol Nutr Food Res 61(6).  https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201600950Google Scholar
  121. Wagh P, Rai M, Deshmukh SK et al (2007) Bio-activity of oils of Trigonella foenum-graecum and Pongamia pinnata. Afr J Biotechnol 6(13):1592–1596Google Scholar
  122. Wani SA, Kumar P (2016) Fenugreek: a review on its nutraceutical properties and utilization in various food products. J Saudi Soc Agric Sci 17(2):97–106Google Scholar
  123. Yadav S, Sehgal S (1997) Effect of home processing and storage on ascorbic acid and β-carotene content of bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) leaves. Plant Food Hum Nutr 50(3):239–247Google Scholar
  124. Yadav R, Kaushik R, Gupta D (2011) The health benefits of Trigonella foenum-graecum: a review. Int J Eng Res Appl 1(1):32–35Google Scholar
  125. Yesuf K, Mersso B, Bekele T (2017) Effects of different levels of turmeric, fenugreek and black cumin on carcass characteristics of broiler chicken. J Livestock Sci 8:11–17. ISSN: 2277-6214Google Scholar
  126. Yoshikawa T, Toyokuni S, Yamamoto Y et al (2000) Free radicals in chemistry biology and medicine. OICA International, London, p 580Google Scholar
  127. Zafar MI, Gao F (2016) 4-Hydroxyisoleucine: a potential new treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. BioDrugs 30(4):255–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Zhou J, Chan L, Zhou S (2012) Trigonelline: a plant alkaloid with therapeutic potential for diabetes and central nervous system disease. Curr Med Chem 19(21):3523–3531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Żuk-Gołaszewska K, Wierzbowska J (2017) Fenugreek: productivity, nutritional values and uses. J Elementol 22(3):1067–1080Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dinesh Kumar
    • 1
  • Ramdas Singh Wangkheirakpam
    • 2
  • Anu Rahal
    • 3
  • Jitendra K. Malik
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of Pharmacology & ToxicologyIndian Veterinary Research InstituteBareillyIndia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology & ToxicologyCollege of Veterinary Sciences & Animal HusbandryR.K. NagarIndia
  3. 3.Central Institute for Research on Goat (CIRG)MathuraIndia
  4. 4.IVRIDehradunIndia

Personalised recommendations