Antioxidants in Prevention and Treatment of Diseases and Toxicity

  • Dejan Milatovic
  • Ramesh C. Gupta


Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and the body’s ability to detoxify their toxic effects through antioxidant defense system. Reactive radicals derived from molecular oxygen or nitrogen are generated internally in animal and human body systems or through external sources like environmental pollution, toxic metals, and pesticides. ROS and RNS attack a variety of essential biological molecules, including lipids, cellular proteins, and DNA, cause alterations in normal cell and organ physiology, and activate disease processes. Given the important role of oxidative stress in the cell and tissue injury, several antioxidants have been exploited for their beneficial effect in regulation of ROS/RNS production and neutralization as well as for preservation of equilibrium. This chapter analyzes oxidative stress and its biomarkers and discusses antioxidant systems essential for preventing and ameliorating detrimental effects of ROS and RNS.


Oxidative stress Reactive oxygen species Biomarkers Antioxidants 



Preparation of this chapter is supported by JGMS, Inc.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dejan Milatovic
    • 1
  • Ramesh C. Gupta
    • 2
  1. 1.AlexandriaUSA
  2. 2.Toxicology Department, Breathitt Veterinary CenterMurray State UniversityHopkinsvilleUSA

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