Advertisement

How to Become a Leader: Identifying Global Repertoires for Populist Leadership

  • María Esperanza Casullo
Chapter
Part of the Global Political Sociology book series (GLPOSO)

Abstract

Ernesto Laclau’s description in his book On Populist Reason of the creation of popular identities centered around a leader posits that the formation of a people is an impersonal social process. In clear opposition to other theories of populism (such as, for instance, Kurt Weyland’s) that define it as a strategy for accumulating personal power that can be deployed at will by ambitious politicians, for Laclau the populist leader can only become the empty signifier that unifies the chain of equivalences by virtue of a collective coalescence that is largely beyond her control. But Laclau does not explain the transition from individual to leader in detail. Is it ruled purely by chance? It cannot be completely contingent, even if it is not voluntary. This chapter argues that a certain number of socially available discursive scripts exist that mediate between the social and the individual levels. A fair number of populist leaders present themselves as either patriotic military man, social movement leader, or selfless bussinessman. The paper will analyze the global diffusion of these scripts and their differential impact for the possibility of a popular project.

Keywords

Populism, leadership styles Political repertories Populism and gender South American populism 

References

  1. Archondo, Rafael. 2009. Breve biografía política de Evo Morales. Revista Umbrales de Ciencias Sociales 19: 97–118. Google Scholar
  2. Barr, Robert. 2009. Populists, Outsiders and Anti-establishment Politics. Party Politics 15 (1): 29–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carreras, Miguel. 2012. The Rise of Outsiders in Latin America, 1980–2010: An Institutionalist Perspective. Comparative Political Studies 45 (12): 1451–1482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Casullo, María E., and Flavia Freidenberg. 2014. The Rise of Outsider Politicians in Latin America and Europe. The Monkey Cage Blog. Washington Post, September 16. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2014/09/16/the-rise-of-outsider-politicians-in-latin-america-and-europe/?utm_term=.9856b0c15182.
  5. Casullo, María E., and Flavia Freidenberg. 2017. Populist Parties of Latin America: The Cases of Argentina and Ecuador. In Political Populism: A Handbook, ed. Reinhard C. Heinisch, Christina Holtz-Bacha, and Oscar Mazzoleni, 291–306. Baden Baden: Nomos.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Casullo, María Esperanza. 2018. The Populist Body in the Age of Social Media: A Comparative Study of Populist and Non-populist Representation. Paper presented at the 25th IPSA Conference, Brisbane, 25 July 2018.Google Scholar
  7. De La Torre, Carlos. 2010. El gobierno de Rafael Correa: Posneoliberalismo, confrontación con los movimientos sociales y democracia plebiscitaria. Temas y Debates 20 (October), 157–172.Google Scholar
  8. Dingler, Sarah, Zoe Lefkofridi, and Vanessa Marent. 2017. The Gender Dimension of Populism. In Political Populism: A Handbook, ed. Reinhard C. Heinisch, Christina Holtz-Bacha, and Oscar Mazzoleni, 345–360. Baden Baden: Nomos.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Grattan, Laura. 2016. Populism’s Power: Radical Grassroots Democracy in America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Grisaffi, Thomas. 2010. We are Originarios …‘We Just Aren’t from Here’: Coca Leaf and Identity Politics in the Chapare, Bolivia. Bulletin of Latin American Research 29 (4): 425–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Heinisch, Reinhard, and Steven Saxonberg. 2017. Entrepreneurial Populism and the Radical Centre: Examples from Austria and the Czech Republic. In Political Populism: A Handbook, ed. Reinhard C. Heinisch, Christina Holtz-Bacha, and Oscar Mazzoleni, 209–262. Baden Baden: Nomos.Google Scholar
  12. Heinisch, Reinhard C., Christina Holtz-Bacha, and Oscar Mazzoleni (eds.). 2017. Political Populism: A Handbook. Baden Baden: Nomos.Google Scholar
  13. Laclau, Ernesto. 2005. La Razón Populista. Buenos Aires: Fondo de Cultura Económica.Google Scholar
  14. Machiavelli, Nicolo. 1950. The Prince and the Discourses. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  15. Mazzoleni, Gianpietro. 2008. Populism and the Media. In Twenty-First Century Populism, ed. Daniele Albertazzi and Duncan McDonnell. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  16. Meret, Susi and Berte Siim. 2013. Gender, Populism and Politics of Belonging: Discourses of Right-Wing Populist Parties in Denmark, Norway and Austria. In Negotiating Gender and Diversity in an Emergent European Public Sphere, ed. Birte Siim and Monika Mokre. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Meret, Susi and Berte Siim. 2015. Female Leaders for ‘Männerparteien’? A Comparative and Explorative Study of Populist Right-Wing Leaders Pia Kjærsgaard, Marine Le Pen and Siv Jensen. Paper presented at the IV European Conference on Politics and Gender, Uppsala, June 11–13.Google Scholar
  18. Miller, Lisa. 2010. What Does “Mama Grizzly” Really Mean? Newsweek Magazine, 27 September. https://www.newsweek.com/what-does-mama-grizzly-really-mean-72001.
  19. Moffitt, Benjamin. 2015. The Global Rise of Populism: Performance, Political Style, and Representation. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Mudde, Cas, and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser. 2017. Populism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Neso, Nicola. 2013. De la guerra del agua hasta la guerra del gas: los movimientos sociales de Bolivia y la elección de Evo Morales. Revista de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Iberoamericana 15 (1): 207–232.Google Scholar
  22. Panizza, Francisco. 2005. Introduction. In Populism and the Mirror of Democracy, ed. Francisco Panizza, 1–32. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  23. Panizza, Francisco. 2009. Latin America After the Washington Consensus: The Rise of the Left. London: Zed.Google Scholar
  24. Roberts, Kenneth M. 1995. Neoliberalism and the Transformation of Populism in Latin America: The Peruvian Case. World Politics 48 (1): 82–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Roberts, Kenneth M. 2003. Social Correlates of Party System Demise and Populist Resurgence in Venezuela. Latin American Politics and Society 45 (3): 35–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Roberts, Kenneth. 2012. Populism and Democracy in Venezuela under Hugo Chávez. In Populism in Europe and the Americas: Threat or Corrective for Democracy? ed. Cas Mudde and Rovira Kaltwasser Cristóbal, 136–159. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Ruzza, Carlo. 2017. The Populist Right and Social Movements. In Political Populism: A Handbook, ed. Reinhard C. Heinisch, Christina Holtz-Bacha, and Oscar Mazzoleni, 87–104. Nomos: Baden Baden.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Scrinzi, Francesca. 2011. Gender and Women in the Front National Discourse and Policy: From ‘Mothers of the Nation’ to ‘Working Mothers’? New Formations 91 (Spring–Summer): 87–101.Google Scholar
  29. Sigal, Silvia, and Eliseo Verón. 2003. Perón o Muerte. Los Fundamentos Discursivos del Fenómeno Peronista. Buenos Aires: Eudeba.Google Scholar
  30. Sivak, Martin. 2009. Jefazo. Buenos Aires: Debate.Google Scholar
  31. Skocpol, Theda, and Vanessa Williamson. 2011. The Tea Party and the Remaking of Republican Conservatism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Taggart, Paul. 2000. Populism: Concepts in the Social Sciences. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Torre, Juan Carlos. 1998. El proceso político de las reformas económicas en América Latina. Buenos Aires: Paidós.Google Scholar
  34. Vergari, Sandra. 2017. Contemporary Populism in the United States. In Political Populism. A Handbook, ed. Reinhard C. Heinisch, Christina Holtz-Bacha, and Oscar Mazzoleni, 241–254. Nomos: Baden Baden.Google Scholar
  35. Weyland, Kurt. 1999. Neoliberal Populism in Latin America and Eastern Europe. Comparative Politics 31:4 (July): 379–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Weyland, Kurt. 2001. Clarifying a Contested Concept: Populism in the Study of Latin American Politics. Comparative Politics 34 (1): 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • María Esperanza Casullo
    • 1
  1. 1.Universidad Nacional de Río NegroCipollettiArgentina

Personalised recommendations