Advertisement

The Liberal International Order and Its Populist Adversaries in Russia, UK and USA

  • Robert G. Patman
Chapter
Part of the Global Political Sociology book series (GLPOSO)

Abstract

This chapter explores the proliferation of populist threats to the liberal international order during the last decade. It includes consideration of an external challenge from the Putin regime in Moscow; internal challenges following the Brexit victory in the UK referendum on EU membership and the advent of the ‘America First’ strategy after the election of Donald Trump to the White House; and the apparent convergence of these internal and external threats. Such challenges indicate that the current populist wave is symptomatic of deeper structural shifts in the evolution of the liberal order since the 1980s and unless the underlying causes—the downsides of globalization—are directly addressed the populist change is unlikely to fade anytime soon.

Keywords

Liberal order Populism Putin Brexit Trump Globalization Anti-establishment Nationalism World order 

References

  1. Beaumont, P. 2017. US Will ‘Take Names of Those Who Vote to Reject Jerusalem Recognition’. The Guardian, December 20. www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/dec/20/us-take-names-united-nations-vote-to-reject-jerusalem-recognition.
  2. British Broadcasting Corporation. 2016. Jo Cox MP Dead After Shooting Attack. BBC News, June 16. http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-36550304.
  3. British Broadcasting Corporation. 2018. Russia: The ‘Cloud’ Over the Trump White House, September 14. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-38966846.
  4. Burgess, M. 2018. Where the UK’s Investigations into Russia’s Brexit Meddling Stand. Wired, January 30. http://www.wired.co.uk/article/russia-brexit-influence-uk-twitter-facebook-google.
  5. Cadwalladr, C. 2018. Arron Banks, Brexit and the Russia Connection. The Observer, June 16. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/jun/16/arron-banks-nigel-farage-leave-brexit-russia-connection?CMP=share_btn_tw.
  6. Clark, I. 1997. Globalization and Fragmentation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
  7. d’Ancona, M. 2018. Why ‘Post-truth’ Matters to Think-Tanks. Chatham House Roundtable, London, January 30. www.chathamhouse.org/event/why-post-truth-matters-think-tanks.
  8. Dawisha, K. 2014. Putin’s Kleptocracy: Who Owns Russia? New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  9. Embury-Dennis, T. 2018. Brexit’s Biggest Campaign Donor ‘Investigated by National Crime Agency Over Links to Russia’, July 1. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/brexit-russia-arron-banks-investigated-leaveeu-national-crime-agency-a8425321.html.
  10. Freedland, J. 2017. Theresa May’s EU Deal Will Postpone the Pain of Brexit, but Won’t Prevent It. The Guardian, December 8. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/dec/08/theresa-may-eu-deal-brexit-hard-border-ireland.
  11. Fukuyama, F. 1989. The End of History? The National Interest 16 (Summer): 4–19.Google Scholar
  12. Gough, N. 2017. Even Harley Davidson Cannot Resist the Tug of Overseas Factories. New York Times, May 23. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/23/business/harley-davidson-thailand-factory-manufacturing.html.
  13. Grayling, A.C. 2017. Democracy and Its Crisis. London: Oneworld.Google Scholar
  14. Harris, P. 2015. Losing the International Order: Westphalia, Liberalism and Current World Crises. The National Interest, November 10. https://nationalinterest.org/feature/losing-the-international-order-westphalia-liberalism-current-14298.
  15. Higgins, A. 2017. Aleksei Navalny, Top Putin Critic, Arrested as Protests Flare. New York Times, March 26. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/26/world/europe/moscow-protests-aleksei-navalny.html.
  16. Ikenberry, G.J. 2009. Liberal Internationalism 3.0: America and the Dilemmas of Liberal World Order. Perspectives on Politics 7 (1): 71–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ikenberry, G.J. 2011a. Liberal Leviathan: The Origins, Crisis, and Transformation of the American World Order. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar
  18. Ikenberry, G.J. 2011b. The Future of the Liberal World Order. Foreign Affairs, May/June, 56–68.Google Scholar
  19. Inglehart, R.F., and P. Norris. 2016. Trump, Brexit, and the Rise of Populism: Economic Have-Nots and Cultural Backlash. Faculty Research Working Paper Series, Harvard Kennedy School, RWP16-026.Google Scholar
  20. Ionescu, G. 1991. Leadership in an Interdependent World: The Statemanship of Adenauer, De Gaulle, Thatcher, Reagan and Gorbachev. Harlow: Longman.Google Scholar
  21. Kundnani, H. 2017. What Is the Liberal International Order? Policy Essay, GMF (The German Marshall Fund of the United States) 17 (April): 1–10.Google Scholar
  22. Marcus, J. 2018. Trump Kim Summit: What Did It Actually Achieve? BBC News, US and Canada, June 14. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-44484322.
  23. Merrick, R. 2018. Vote Leave Fined and Referred to Police Over Brexit Campaign Spending, Electoral Commission Announces. Independent, July 17. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/vote-leave-brexit-fine-police-electoral-commission-spending-latest-a8450466.html.
  24. Mostrous, Alexi, Mark Bridge, and Katie Gibbons. 2017. Russia Used Twitter Bots and Trolls ‘To Disrupt’ Brexit Vote. The Times, November 15. https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/russia-used-web-posts-to-disrupt-brexit-vote-h9nv5zg6c.
  25. Mudde, C. 2004. The Populist Zeitgeist. Government and Opposition 39 (4): 541–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mudde, C. 2016. Europe’s Populist Surge. Foreign Affairs 95 (6): 1–6.Google Scholar
  27. Nardelli, A. 2018. This Leaked Government Brexit Analysis Says the UK Will Be Worse Off in Every Scenario. BuzzFeed News, January 30. https://www.buzzfeed.com/albertonardelli/the-governments-own-brexit-analysis-says-the-uk-will-be?utm_term=.scj0PRXegN#.rrYNV8PrD6.
  28. National Turk. 2015. Russian President Putin Blames US for Ukraine Crisis, February 10. http://www.nationalturk.com/en/russian-president-putin-blames-us-for-ukraine-crisis-56625.
  29. Obama, B. 2009. Remarks by the President to the Ghanaian Parliament. america.gov, July 11. http://www.america.gov/st/texttrans-english/2009/July/20090711110050abretnuh0.1079783.html.
  30. Oliker, O. 2017. Putinism, Populism and the Defence of Liberal Democracy. Survival 59 (1): 7–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pankow, T., and R.G. Patman. 2016. Rethinking Russia’s Ukraine Involvement 2013–2016: The Domestic Imperatives of Putin’s Operational Code. International Politics, October 2017 (published online), 1–20.Google Scholar
  32. Partington, R. 2018. CBI Cuts Forecast for UK Economic Forecast as Brexit Concerns Linger. The Guardian, June 8. https://www.theguardian.com/business/2018/jun/08/cbi-cuts-forecast-uk-economic-growth-brexit-concerns-eu.
  33. Patman, R.G. 2000. International Human Rights After the Cold War. In Universal Human Rights? ed. R.G. Patman, 1–18. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  34. Patman, R.G. 2016a. Putin Tests Merkel’s Sanctions Resolve. New Zealand Herald, February 16. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/opinion/news/article.cfm?c_id=466&objectid=11590420.
  35. Patman, R.G. 2016b. Brexit and the Illusion of More British Sovereignty. Stuff, June 22. http://www.stuff.co.nz/world/europe/81358290/brexit-and-the-illusion-of-more-british-sovereignty.
  36. Patman, R.G. 2016c. Why Brexit Is Not an Uprising Against the Political Establishment. Stuff, July 21. http://www.stuff.co.nz/world/europe/82369593/Why-Brexit-is-not-an-uprising-against-the-political-establishment.
  37. Patman, R.G. 2016d. Brexit—“A Reckless Gamble.” New Zealand Listener, July 25. http://www.noted.co.nz/currently/world/the-brexit-vote-was-a-reckless-gamble/.
  38. Patman, R.G. 2016e. What Does the 2016 Presidential Election Mean for America and the World? Stuff, September 26. http://www.stuff.co.nz/world/americas/84661741/what-does-the-2016-presidential-election-mean-for-america-and-the-world.
  39. Patman, R.G. 2017a. Why May Government Accepts a Poorer Britain for Brexit. Stuff World News, January 17. http://www.stuff.co.nz/world/europe/88491991/Robert-Patman-Why-May-Government-accepts-a-poorer-Britain-for-Brexit.
  40. Patman, R.G. 2017b. Has Putin Underestimated the Resilience of the Western Liberal Order? Noted, April 15. http://www.noted.co.nz/currently/world/has-putin-underestimated-the-resilience-of-the-western-liberal-order/.
  41. Patman, R.G. 2017c. Brexit Fairytale Unlikely to Have a Happy Ending. Stuff World News, May 7. http://www.stuff.co.nz/world/europe/92328783/Robert-Patman-The-Brexit-fairytale-is-unlikely-to-have-a-happy-ending.
  42. Patman, R.G. 2018. For the Many or the Few? Corbyn’s Brexit Betrayal. Australian Outlook, January 16. http://www.internationalaffairs.org.au/australianoutlook/corbyn-brexit/.
  43. Payne, A., and W. Martin. 2017. The 21 Biggest Donors to the Brexit Campaign. Business Insider UK, May 9. http://uk.businessinsider.com/twenty-one-biggest-donors-to-the-leave-brexit-campaign-2017-5/?r=AU&IR=T/#21-tessa-keswick-20000-1.
  44. Piper, D.L.A. 2018. UK: ICO Announces Intention to Fine Facebook £500,000 and Publishes Data Analytics Investigation Update. Lexology, July 12. https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=e7025472-7e20-4ec6-9750-752f5bfb7e43.
  45. Plattner, M.F. 2010. Populism, Pluralism, and Liberal Democracy. Journal of Democracy 21 (1): 81–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ruggie, J. 1982. International Regimes, Transactions, and Change: Embedded Liberalism in the Postwar Economic Order. International Organization 36 (2): 379–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sarkar, S. 2018. Economists United: Trump Tariffs Won’t Help the Economy. Reuters, March 14. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-economy-poll/economists-united-trump-tariffs-wont-help-the-economy-idUSKCN1GQ02G.
  48. Schallhorn, K., and M. Farber. 2018. Who’s Been Charged by Mueller in the Russia Probe So Far? Fox News, July 14. http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2018/07/13/whos-been-charged-by-mueller-in-russia-probe-so-far.html.
  49. Sheth, S. 2018. We Have Just Witnessed the 10 Most Disastrous Days of Trump’s Presidency. Business Insider Australia, July 21. https://www.businessinsider.com.au/trump-nato-russia-putin-worst-week-of-presidency-2018-7?r=US&IR=T.
  50. Starrs, S. 2015. China’s Rise is Designed in America, Assembled in China. China’s World 2 (2): 9–20.Google Scholar
  51. Tanas, O., A. Andrianova, and R. Chilcote. 2016. Russia on War Path Leaves Siluanov to Scrape by as Funds Ebb. Bloomberg Business, January 16. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-01-13/russia-seeks-20-billion-budget-boost-as-siluanov-warns-on-oil.
  52. Tankard, P. 2016. Trump Is the Surprise the Left’s Been Asking For. Otago Daily Times, December 13. https://www.odt.co.nz/opinion/trump-surprise-lefts-been-asking. Accessed 15 December 2016.
  53. The Avalon Project. 2018. Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy. Yale Law School. http://guides.library.uwa.edu.au/c.php?g=380288&p=2575722.
  54. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. 2017. Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov’s Address and Answers to Questions at the 53rd Munich Security Conference, Munich, February 18. http://www.mid.ru/en/press_service/minister_speeches/-/asset_publisher/7OvQR5KJWVmR/content/id/2648249.
  55. The United Nations General Assembly. 1948. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 10 December 1948, Adopted by the United Nations General Assembly, Resolution 217A (III). http://www.un-documents.net/a3r217a.htm.
  56. The White House. 2017. Remarks of President Donald J. Trump 2017—As Prepared for Delivery Inaugural Address, January 20. https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/the-inaugural-address/.
  57. Wearden, G. 2014. Oxfam: 85 Richest People as Wealthy as Poorest Half of the World. The Guardian, January 20. https://www.theguardian.com/business/2014/jan/20/oxfam-85-richest-people-half-of-the-world.
  58. Weaver, M., and J. Waterson. 2018. Leave.EU Fined £70,000 Over Breaches of Electoral Law. The Guardian, May 11. https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2018/may/11/leaveeu-fined-70k-breaches-of-electoral-law-eu-referendum.
  59. Weiss, B. 2017. Here’s Who Has Been Charged So Far in Mueller’s Probe. Business Insider Australia, December 2. https://www.businessinsider.com.au/who-has-been-charged-in-russia-investigation-mueller-trump-2017-12?r=US&IR=T.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations