Advertisement

Benign Breast Tumors

  • Emilia Josefa Borromeo Diego
Chapter

Abstract

The topic of benign breast diseases covers a wide variety of conditions, both common and unusual, that may require additional workup, excision, or surveillance. In addition, some benign conditions may confer an increased risk for future disease, and this risk should be explained to the patient during treatment for these entities. This section attempts to provide a basic understanding of some of the most frequently encountered benign breast conditions as well as some rare types, including current recommendations for workup, management, differential diagnoses, and future surveillance. The specific conditions that are explored in this chapter include fibroadenomas, intraductal papillomas, lipomas, hamartomas, radial scars, and gynecomastia in males.

Keywords

Fibroadenoma Phyllode tumor Intraductal papilloma Lipoma Hamartoma Radial scar Granular cell tumor Gynecomastia 

References

  1. 1.
    Kuijper A, Mommers E, van der Wall E, van Diest P. Histopathology of fibroadenoma of the breast. Am J Clin Pathol. 2001;115:736–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Frantz VK, Pickren JW, Melcher GW, Auchincloss H Jr. Incidence of chronic cystic disease in so-called “normal breasts”: a study based on 225 postmortem examinations. Cancer. 1951;4(4):762–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    El-Wakeel H, Umpleby HC. Systematic review of fibroadenoma as a risk factor for breast cancer. Breast. 2003;12(5):302–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Harvey JA, Nicholson BT, LoRusso AP, Cohen MA, Bovbjerg VE. Short-term follow-up of palpable breast lesions with benign imaging features: evaluation of 375 lesions in 320 women. Am J Roentgenol. 2009;193(6):1723–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zimmermann N, Ohlinger R. Diagnostic value of palpation, mammography and ultrasonography in the diagnosis of fibroadenoma: impact of breast density, patient age, ultrasonographic size, and palpability. Ultraschall Med. 2011;33(7):E151–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Matz D, Kerivan L, Reintgen M, Akman K, Lozicki A, Causey T, et al. Breast preservation in women with giant juvenile fibroadenoma. Clin Breast Cancer. 2013;13(3):219–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aiken D. Brodie’s disease of the breast. Br J Surg. 1946;34:87–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sklair-Levy M, Sella T, Alweiss T, Cracium L, Libson E, Mally B. Incidence and management of complex fibroadenomas. Am J Roentgenol. 2008;190(1):214–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Esposito N. Fibroepithelial lesions. In: Dabbs DJ, editor. Breast pathology. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2012. p. 233–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Valdes EK, Boolbol SK, Cohen JM, Feldman S. Malignant transformation of a breast fibroadenoma to cystosarcoma phyllodes: case report and review of the literature. Am Surg. 2005;71(4):348–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Luo HJ, Chen X, Tu G, Wang J, Wu CY, Yang GL. Therapeutic application of ultrasound-guided 8-gauge mammotome system in presumed benign breast lesions. Breast J. 2011;17(5):490–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kibil W, Hodorowicz-Zaniewska D, Popiela T, Kulig J. Vacuum-assisted core biopsy in diagnosis and treatment of intraductal papillomas. Clin Breast Cancer. 2012.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clbc.2012.09.018.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jakate K, De Brot M, Goldberg F, Muradali D, O’Malley FP, Mulligan AM. Papillary lesions of the breast: impact of breast pathology subspecialization on core biopsy and excision diagnosis. Am J Surg Pathol. 2012;36(4):544–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rizzo M, Lund MJ, Oprea G, Schniederjan M, Wood WC, Mosunjac M. Surgical follow-up and clinical presentation of 142 breast papillary lesions diagnosed by ultrasound-guided core-needle biopsy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2008;15(4):1040–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lewis JT, Hartmann LC, Vierkant RA, Maloney SD, Pankratz S, Allers TM, et al. An analysis of breast cancer risk in women with single, multiple and atypical papilloma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2006;30(6):665–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Esposito N. Papilloma and papillary lesions. In: Dabbs DJ, editor. Breast pathology. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2012. p. 252–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cardenosa G, Eklund GW. Benign papillary neoplasms of the breast: mammographic findings. Radiology. 1991;181:751–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rizzo M, Linebarger J, Lowe M, Pan L, Gabram S, Vasquez L, et al. Management of papillary breast lesions diagnosed on core-needle biopsy: clinical pathologic and radiologic analysis of 276 cases with surgical follow-up. J Am Coll Surg. 2012;214(3):280–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Li X, Weaver O, Desouki MM, Dabbs D, Shyum S, Carter G, et al. Microcalcification is an important factor in the management of breast intraductal papillomas diagnosed on core biopsy. Am J Clin Pathol. 2012;138:789–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lee KA, Zuley ML, Chivukula M, Choski ND, Ganott MA, Sumkin JH. Risk of malignancy when microscopic radial scars and microscopic papillomas are found at percutaneous biopsy. Am J Roentgenol. 2012;198:W141–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Holley SO, Appleton CM, Farria DM, Reichert VC, Warrick J, Allread DC, et al. Pathologic outcomes of nonmalignant papillary breast lesions diagnosed at imaging-guided core needle biopsy. Radiology. 2012;265(2):379–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Swapp RE, Glazebrook KN, Jones KN, Brandts HM, Reynolds C, Visscher DW, et al. Management of benign intraductal solitary papilloma diagnosed on core needle biopsy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2013;20(6):1900–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jaffer S, Bleiweiss NC. Excision is indicated for intraductal papilloma of the breast diagnosed on core needle biopsy. Cancer. 2009;115(13):2837–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brennan SB, Corben A, Liberman L, Dershaw DD, Brogi E, Van Zee KJ, et al. Papilloma diagnosed at MRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy: is surgical excision still warranted? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012;199:W512–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fu CY, Chen TW, Hong ZJ, Chan DC, Young CY, Chen CJ, et al. Papillary breast lesions diagnosed by core biopsy require complete excision. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2012;38(11):1029–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Groh O, Klaas in’t Hof K. Giant lipoma of the male breast: case report and review of the literature. Eur J Plast Surg. 2012;35(5):407–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lanng C, Eriksen BO, Hoffmann J. Lipoma of the breast: a diagnostic dilemma. Breast. 2004;13(5):408–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sanchez MR, Golomb FM, Moy JA, Potozkin JR. Giant lipoma: case report and review of the literature. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993;28:266–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lattin GE, Jessinger RA, Mattu R, Glassman LM. From the radiologic pathology archives: diseases of the male breast: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2013;33(2):461–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Muttarak M, Chaiwaun B. Imaging of giant breast masses with pathological correlation. Singap Med J. 2004;45(3):132–9.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yitta S, Singer CI, Toth HB, Mercado CL. Sonographic appearance of benign and malignant male breast disease with mammographic and pathologic correlation. J Ultrasound Med. 2010;29(6):931–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Grossman J, Menes T, Lahat G, Gur E, Weiss J, Barnea Y. Use of the oncoplastic reduction pattern technique following removal of a giant breast lipoma. Ann Plast Surg. 2011;67(2):106–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Uchoa DGM, Cruz DB, Schaefer PG, Pegas KL, Cambruzzi E. Myofibroblastoma arising in mammary hamartoma: a case report. Pathol Res Int. 2010;2010:726829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tse GM, Law BK, Ma TK, Chan AB, Pang L-M, Chu WC, Cheung SH. Hamartoma of the breast: a clinicopathological review. J Clin Pathol. 2002;55(12):951–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Shin SJ, Rabban JT. Mesenchymal neoplasms of the breast. In: Dabbs DJ, editor. Breast pathology. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2012. p. 596–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Desphande A, Munshi M. Mammary hamartoma: report of two cases including one in a male breast, and review of the literature. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2004;47(4):511–5.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gupta SS, Singh O, Hastir A, Arora G, Sabharwal G, Mishra H. Breast hamartoma with intrathoracic extension in a 13-year old boy. J Cancer Res Ther. 2010;6(1):86–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chang HL, Lerwill MF, Goldstein AM. Breast hamartomas in adolescent females. Breast J. 2009;15(5):515–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Erdem G, Karakas HM, Isik B, Firat AK. Advanced MRI findings in patients with breast hamartomas. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2011;17(1):33–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Am D, Ramesar K, Allan S, Marr A, Howlett D. Breast hamartoma arising in axillary ectopic breast tissue. Breast J. 2010;16(4):433–4.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Birrell AL, Warren LR, Birrell SN. Misdiagnosis of massive breast asymmetry: giant hamartomas. ANZ J Surg. 2012;82(12):941–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mizuta N, Sakaguchi K, Mizuta M, Imai A, Nakatsukasa K, Morita M, et al. Myoid hamartoma of the breast that proved difficult to diagnose: a case report. World J Surg Oncol. 2012;10:12.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kajo K, Zubor P, Danko J. Myoid (muscular) hamartoma of the breast: case report and review of the literature. Breast Care. 2010;5(5):331–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yu L, Yang W, Xu X. Myoid hamartoma of the breast: clinicopathologic analysis of a rare tumor indicating occasional recurrence potential. Breast J. 2011;17(3):322–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ruiz-Tovar J, Reguero-Callejas ME, Alaez AB, Ramiro C, Rojo R, Collado MV, et al. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ associated with mammary hamartoma. Breast J. 2006;12(4):368–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Choi N, Ko ES. Invasive ductal carcinoma in a mammary hamartoma: case report and review of the literature. Korean J Radiol. 2010;11(6):687–91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Herbert M, Schvimer M, Zehavi S, Mendlovic S, Karni T, Pappo I, et al. Breast hamartoma: fine-needle aspiration cytologic finding. Cancer. 2003;99(4):255–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Herbert M, Mendlovic S, Liokumovich P, Segal M, Zahavi S, Rath-Wolfson L, et al. Can hamartoma of the breast be distinguished from fibroadenoma using fine-needle aspiration cytology? Diagn Cytopathol. 2004;34(5):326–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Haikal F, Maceira JP, Dias EP, Ramos-e-Silva M. Histogenesis of Abrikossoff tumour of the oral cavity. Int J Dent Hyg. 2004;8(1):53–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Aoyama K, Kamio T, Hirano A, Seshimo A, Kameoka S. Granular cell tumors: a report of six cases. World J Surg Oncol. 2012.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7819-10-204.
  51. 51.
    Kim EY, Kang DK, Kim TH, Jung YS, Kim KS, Yim H. Granular cell tumor of the male breast: two case descriptions and brief review of the literature. J Ultrasound Med. 2011;30(9):1295–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Maki DD, Horne D, Damore LJ II, Jones C. Magnetic resonance appearance of granular cell tumors of the breast. Clin Imaging. 2009;33(5):395–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Pergel A, Yucel AF, Karaca AS, Aydin I, Sahin DA, Demirbag N. A therapeutic and diagnostic dilemma: granular cell tumor of the breast. Case Rep Med. 2011.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/972168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    De Simone N, Aggon A, Christy C. Granular cell tumor of the breast: clinical and pathologic characteristics of a rare case in a 14-year-old girl. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(22):e656–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lee SJ, Mahoney MC. The protean manifestations of granular cell tumor of the breast. Breast J. 2011;17(2):201–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Papalas JA, Wylie JD, Dash RC. Recurrence risk and margin status in granular cell tumors of the breast. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2011;135(7):890–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Scaranelo AM, Bukhanov K, Crystal P, Mulligan AM, O’Malley FP. Granular cell tumour of the breast: MRI findings and review of the literature. Br J Radiol. 2007;80(960):970–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Filipovski V, Banev S, Janevska V, Dukova B. Granular cell tumor of the breast: a case report and review of literature. Cases J. 2009.  https://doi.org/10.4076/1757-1626-2-8551.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Rekhi B, Jambhekar NA. Morphologic spectrum, immunohistochemical analysis, and clinical features of a series of granular cell tumors of soft tissues: a study from a tertiary referral cancer center. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2010;14(3):162–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Aneiros-Fernandez J, Arias-Santiago S, Husein-El Ahmed H, O’Valle F, Siendones MIA, Aneiros-Cachaza J. Cutaneous granular cell tumor of the breast: a clinical diagnostic pitfall. J Clin Med Res. 2010;2(4):185–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Linda A, Zuiani C, Londero V, Cedolini C, Girometti R, Bazzocchi M. Magnetic resonance imaging of radial sclerosing lesions (radial scars) of the breast. Eur J Radiol. 2012;81(11):3201–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bunting DM, Steel JR, Holgate CS, Watkins RM. Long term follow-up and risk of breast cancer after a radial scar or complex sclerosing lesion has been identified in a benign open breast biopsy. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2011;37(8):709–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hamperl H. Radial scars (scarring) and obliterating mastopathy (author’s transl). Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histol. 1975;369(1):55–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Page D, Anderson T. Radial scars and complex sclerosing lesions. In: Page D, Anderson T, editors. Diagnostic histopathology of the breast. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1987. p. 89–103.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Babu ED, Power DM, Powis SJA. Radial scar. Breast. 2000;9(2):66–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Bhathal PS, Browm RW, Lesueur GC, Russell IS. Frequency of benign and malignant breast lesions in 207 consecutive autopsies in Australian women. Br J Cancer. 1985;51(2):271–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Nielsen M, Jensen J, Andersen JA. An autopsy study of radial scar in the female breast. Histopathology. 1985;9(3):287–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kennedy M, Masterson AV, Kerin M, Flanagan F. Pathology and clinical relevance of radial scars: a review. J Clin Pathol. 2003;56(10):721–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Toth D, Sebo E, Sarkadi L, Kovacs I, Kiss C, Damajanovich L. Role of core needle biopsy in the treatment of radial scar. Breast. 2012;21(6):761–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Tabar L, Dean PB. Teaching atlas of mammography. 3rd ed. New York: Thieme Berlag Inc; 2001. p. 93–148.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Cawson JN, Nickson C, Evans J, Kavanagh AM. Variation in mammographic appearance between projections of small breast cancers compared with radial scars. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 2010;54(5):415–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Linda A, Zuiani C, Furlan A, Londero V, Girometti R, Machin P, et al. Radial scars without atypia diagnosed at imaging-guided needle biopsy: how often is associated malignancy found at subsequent surgical excision, and do mammography and sonography predict which lesions are malignant? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010;194(4):1146–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lee E, Wylie E, Metcalf C. Ultrasound imaging features of radial scars of the breast. Australas Radiol. 2007;51(3):240–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Strigel RM, Eby PR, DeMartini WB, Gutierrez RL, Allison KH, Peacock S, et al. Frequency, upgrade rates, and characteristics of high-risk lesions initially identified with breast MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010;195(3):792–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Linda A, Zuiani C, Furlan A, Lorenzon M, Londero V, Girometti R, et al. Nonsurgical management of high-risk lesions diagnosed at core needle biopsy: can malignancy be ruled out safely with breast MRI? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012;198(2):272–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Perfetto F, Fiorentino F, Urbano F, Silecchia R. Adjunctive diagnostic value of MRI in the breast radial scar. Radiol Med. 2009;114(5):757–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Lee KA, Zuley ML, Chivukula M, Choksi ND, Ganott MA, Sumkin JH. Risk of malignancy when microscopic radial scars and microscopic papillomas are found at percutaneous biopsy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011;198(2):w141–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mohsin SK. Radial scar. In: Dabbs DJ, editor. Breast pathology. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2012. p. 293–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Brenner RJ, Jackman RJ, Parker SH. Percutaneous core needle biopsy of radial scars of the breast: when is excision necessary? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2002;179(5):1179–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Cawson JN, Malara F, Kavanagh A, Hill P, Balasubramanium G, Henderson M. Fourteen-gauge needle core biopsy of mammographically evident radial scars: is excision necessary? Cancer. 2003;97(2):345–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lopez-Medina A, Cintora E, Mugica B, Operé E, Vela AC, Ibañez T. Radial scar diagnosed at stereotactic core needle biopsy: surgical biopsy findings. Eur Radiol. 2006;16(8):1803–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Manfrin E, Remo F, Reghellin D, Bonetti F. Risk of neoplastic transformation in asymptomatic radial scar. Analysis of 117 cases. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008;107(3):371–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Resetkova E, Edelweiss M, Albarracin CT, Yang WT. Management of radial sclerosing lesions of the breast using percutaneous vacuum-assisted core needle biopsy: recommendations for excision based on seven years of experience at a single institution. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;127(2):335–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Rahka EA, Lee AHS, Jenkins JA, Murphy AE, Hamilton LJ, Ellis IO. Characterisation and outcome of breast needle core biopsy diagnosis of lesions of uncertain malignant potential (B3) in abnormalities detected by mammographic screening. Int J Cancer. 2011;129(6):1417–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bianchi S, Giannotti E, Vanzi E, Marziali M, Abdulcadir D, Boeri C, et al. Radial scar without associated atypical epithelial proliferation on image guided 14-gauge needle core biopsy: analysis of 49 cases from a single-centre and review of the literature. Breast. 2012;21(2):159–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Morgan C, Shah ZA, Hamilton R, Wang J, Spigel J, Deleon W, et al. The radial scar of the breast diagnosed at core needle biopsy. Proc (Baylor Univ Med Cent). 2012;25(1):3–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Andacoglu O, Kanbour-Shakir A, Teh YC, Bonaventura M, Ozbek U, Anello M, et al. Rationale of excisional biopsy after the diagnosis of benign radial scar on core biopsy. Am J Clin Oncol. 2013;36(1):7–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Patterson JA, Scott M, Anderson N, Kirk SJ. Radial scar, complex sclerosing lesion and risk of breast cancer. Analysis of 175 cases in northern Ireland. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2004;30(10):1065–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Berg JC, Visscher DW, Vierkant RA, Pankratz VS, Maloney SD, Lewis JT, et al. Breast cancer risk in women with radial scars in benign breast biopsies. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008;108(2):167–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Aroner SA, Collins LC, Connolly JL, Colditz GA, Schnitt SJ, Rosner BA, et al. Radial scars and subsequent breast cancer risk: results from the nurses’ health studies. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013;139(1):277–85.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Barros AC, Sampaio Mde C. Gynecomastia: physiopathology, evaluation and treatment. Sao Paolo Med J. 2012;130(3):187–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Nuzzi LA, Cerrato FE, Erickson CR, Webb ML, Rosen H, Walsh EM, et al. Psychosocial impact of adolescent gynecomastia: a prospective case – control study. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013;131(4):890–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Colombo-Benkmann M, Buse B, Stern J, Herfarth C. Indications for and results of surgical therapy for male gynecomastia. Am J Surg. 1999;178(1):60–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Braunstein GD. Gynecomastia. N Engl J Med. 1993;328(1):490–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Braunstein GD. Gynecomastia. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(12):1229–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Gikas P, Mokbel K. Management of gynaecomastia: an update. Int J Clin Pract. 2007;61(7):1209–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Bowman JD, Kim H, Bustamante JJ. Drug-induced gynecomastia. Pharmacotherapy. 2012;32(12):1123–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Morcos RN, Kizy T. Gynecomastia: when is treatment indicated? J Fam Pract. 2012;61(12):719–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Bidlingmaier F, Knorr D. Plasma testosterone and estrogens in pubertal gynecomastia. Z Kinderheilkd. 1973;115(1):89–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Song YN, Wang YB, Huang R, He XG, Zhang JF, Zhang GQ, et al. Surgical treatment of gynecomastia: mastectomy compared to liposuction technique. Ann Plast Surg. 2014;73(3):275–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Beenken SW, Page DL, Bland KI. Gynecomastia. In: Bland KI, Copeland EM, editors. The breast: comprehensive management of benign and malignant diseases. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2009. p. 151–68.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Nguyen C, Kettler MD, Swirsky ME, Miller VI, Scott C, Krause R, et al. Male breast disease: pictorial review with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2013;33(3):763–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kasielska A, Antoszewski B. Surgical management of gynecomastia: an outcome analysis. Ann Plast Surg. 2013;71(5):471–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Charlot M, Beatrix O, Chateau F, Dubuisson J, Golfier F, Valette PJ, et al. Pathologies of the male breast. Diagn Interv Imaging. 2013;94(1):26–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Chivukula M, Dabbs DJ. Neoplasia of the male breast. In: Dabbs DJ, editor. Breast pathology. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2012. p. 642–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lee JH, Kim IK, Kim TG, Kim YH. Surgical correction of gynecomastia with minimal scarring. Aesthet Plast Surg. 2012;36(6):1302–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Serretta V, Altieri V, Morgia G, Serretta V, Altieri V, Morgia G, et al. A randomized trial comparing tamoxifen therapy vs. tamoxifen prophylaxis in bicalutamide-induced gynecomastia. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2012;10(3):174–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    James R, Ahmed F, Cunnick G. The efficacy of tamoxifen in the treatment of primary gynecomastia: an observational study of tamoxifen versus observation alone. Breast J. 2012;18(6):620–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kunath F, Keck B, Antes G, Wullich B, Meerpohl JJ. Tamoxifen for the management of breast events induced by non-steroidal antiandrogens in patients with prostate cancer: a systematic review. BMC Med. 2012;10:96.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Neu B, Sautter V, Momm F, Melcher U, Seegenschmiedt H, Micke O, et al. Radiotherapy for prevention and therapy of gynecomastia due to antiandrogen treatment in prostate cancer patients: a patterns-of-care study. Strahlenther Onkol. 2011;187(12):771–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emilia Josefa Borromeo Diego
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical OncologyMagee-Womens Hospital, University of Pittsburgh Medical CenterPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations