Scalp and Special Electrodes

  • Oriano MecarelliEmail author
  • Ferruccio Panzica


In this chapter, the physical characteristics and the functions of the electrodes are reported. In the first part, the differences between the various types of electrodes, the biochemical mechanisms of electrical conduction and the electrode chloridation methods are described. The second part is dedicated to the description of standard EEG electrodes (intrinsic properties, positioning, caps, adhesive pastes). Finally, a description of characteristics and indications of special electrodes is also reported.


Scalp electrodes Electrode chloridation Dry electrodes Special electrodes Infection control 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Human NeurosciencesSapienza University of RomeRomeItaly
  2. 2.Clinical and Biomedical Engineering Unit, Department of NeurophysiologyFondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico “C. Besta”MilanItaly

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