Advertisement

Developing Resilience in the Aged and Dementia Care Workforce

  • Kate-Ellen J. ElliottEmail author
  • Jennifer L. Scott
  • Christine M. Stirling
  • Angela J. Martin
Chapter

Abstract

Developing resilience in the aged and dementia care workforce is an important element of support given their high demand environment. In this chapter, we outline the key known factors relevant for resiliency of aged and dementia care workforces, focusing on direct care workers who provide health care and physical, emotional, and social support to older adults and people with dementia as part of their job roles. We describe workforce characteristics, job demands, and resources, as well as personal and emotional responses to work with international comparisons made where information is available. Several theoretical constructs in social and organizational psychology are overviewed and applied to the investigation of resilience in care work contexts. Organizational psychology can help the aged care sector prepare for the increased need to attract and retain a resilient workforce. Occupational communion is one of the several new theoretical constructs that provide potential for strategies for interventional support and training. Our work suggests that measurement models should be developed that consider positive coping specific to the social nature of caring and the neurodegenerative conditions such as dementia, as well as the characteristics of the workforce.

Keywords

Aging Dementia Intervention Positive psychology Resilience Workforce 

References

  1. Alexopoulos, G. S., Abrams, R. C., Young, R. C., & Shamoian, C. A. (1988). Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Biological Psychiatry, 23(3), 271–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Avey, J. B., Luthans, F., & Youssef, C. M. (2010). The additive value of positive psychological capital in predicting work attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Management, 36(2), 430–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Avey, J. B., Reichard, R. J., Luthans, F., & Mhatre, K. H. (2011). Meta-analysis of the impact of positive psychological capital on employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 22(2), 127–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bakan, D. (1966). The Duality of human existence: Isolation and Communion in Western Man. Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  5. Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Euwema, M. C. (2005). Job resources buffer the impact of job demands on burnout. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10(2), 170–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (1986). The explanatory and predictive scope of Self-Efficacy Theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 4(3), 359–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Campbell, S. (2018). U.S. Home Care Workers: Key Facts—2018, PHI: New York.Google Scholar
  8. Chang, P.-J., & Yarnal, C. (2018). The effect of social support on resilience growth among women in the Red Hat Society. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 13(1), 92–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cohen-Mansfield, J. (1995). Stress in nursing home staff: A review and a theoretical model. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 14(4), 444–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cohen-Mansfield, J., Marx, M. S., & Rosenthal, A. S. (1989). A description of agitation in a nursing home. Journal of Gerontology, 44(3), M77–M84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dawkins, S., Martin, A., Scott, J., & Sanderson, K. (2013). Building on the positives: A psychometric review and critical analysis of the construct of psychological capital. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 86(3), 348–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dawkins, S., Martin, A., Scott, J. L., & Sanderson, K. (2015). Advancing conceptualization and measurement of psychological capital as a collective construct. Human Relations, 68(6), 925–949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The Job Demands-Resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 499–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eisenberger, R., Jones, J. R., Aselage, J., & Sucharski, I. L. (2004). Perceived organizational support. In J. Coyle-Shapiro, A-M., L. M. Shore, M. S. Taylor, & L. E. Tetrick (Eds.), The employment relationship: Examining psychological & contextual perspectives (pp. 206–225). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Ellery-Brown, M. J. (2011). The significance of career narrative in examining a high achieving woman’s career. Australian Journal of Career Development, 20(3), 18–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Elliott, K. J., Scott, J. L., Stirling, C., Martin, A. J., & Robinson, A. (2012). Building capacity and resilience in the dementia care workforce: A systematic review of interventions targeting worker and organizational outcomes. International Psychogeriatrics, 24(6), 882–894.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Elliott, K. J., Stirling, C. M., Martin, A. J., Robinson, A. L., & Scott, J. L. (2013). Perspectives of the community based dementia care workforce: “Occupational communion” a key finding from the Work 4 Dementia Project. International Psychogeriatrics, 25(5), 765–774.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Elliott, K. J., Stirling, C. M., Martin, A. J., Robinson, A. L., & Scott, J. L. (2015a). We are not all coping: A cross-sectional investigation of resilience in the dementia care workforce. Health Expectations, 19(6), 1251–1264.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Elliott, K., Stirling, C., Martin, A., Sanderson, K., Robinson, A., & Scott, J. (2015b). A measure of occupational communion to inform the design and evaluation of dementia care workforce development interventions. International Psychogeriatrics, 27(SupplementS1), S45–S69.Google Scholar
  20. Finnema, E., Dröes, R. M., Ettema, T., Ooms, M., Adèr, H., Ribbe, M., et al. (2005). The effect of integrated emotion-oriented care versus usual care on elderly persons with dementia in the nursing home and on nursing assistants: A randomized clinical trial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(4), 330–343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Finnema, E., Dröes, R. M., Ribbe, M., & Van Tilburg, W. (2000). The effects of emotion-oriented approaches in the care for persons suffering from dementia: A review of the literature. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15(2), 141–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. George, J. M., Reed, T. F., Ballard, K. A., Colin, J., & Fielding, J. (1993). Contact with AIDS patients as a source of work-related distress: Effects of organizational and social support. Academy of Management Journal, 36(1), 157–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Gilboa, S., Shirom, A., Fried, Y., & Cooper, C. (2008). A meta-analysis of work demand stressors and job performance: Examining main and moderating effects. Personnel Psychology, 61(2), 227–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Goldberg, L. R., Bell, E. J., King, C., O’Mara, C., McInerney, F., Robinson, A., et al. (2015). Relationship between participants’ level of education and engagement in their completion of the Understanding Dementia Massive Open Online Course. BMC Medical Education, 15(1), 60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Green, L. W., & Kreuter, M. W. (1999). Health promotion planning: An educational and ecological approach. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  26. Guisinger, S., & Blatt, S. (1994). Individuality and relatedness. American Psychologist, 49, 104–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hayden, J. (2009). Introduction to health behavior theory. Mississauga, Ontario: Jones and Bartlett.Google Scholar
  28. Helgeson, V. S. (1994). Relation of agency and communion to well-being: Evidence and potential explanations. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 412–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Helgeson, V. S., & Fritz, H. L. (1998). A theory of unmitigated communion. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 2(3), 173–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Henderson, E. J., & Caplan, G. A. (2008). Home sweet home? Community care for older people in Australia. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 9(2), 88–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialisation of human feeling. Berkley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  32. Howes, C., Delp, L., Grundy, L., Nardone, C., Reif, L., Simpson, D., et al. (2008). Love, money, or flexibility: What motivates people to work in consumer-directed home care? Gerontologist, 48(S1), 46–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hülsheger, U. R., & Schewe, A. F. (2011). On the costs and benefits of emotional labor: A meta-analysis of three decades of research. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16(3), 361–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hussein, S., & Manthorpe, J. (2011). The dementia social care workforce in England: Secondary analysis of a national workforce dataset. Aging & Mental Health, 6(1), 110–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hvalič-Touzery, S., Skela-Savič, B., Macrae, R., Jack-Waugh, A., Tolson, D., Hellström, A., et al. (2018). The provision of accredited higher education on dementia in six European countries: An exploratory study. Nurse Education Today, 60, 161–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. IOM. (2008). Retooling for an ageing America: Building the health care workforce. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press: Institute of Medicine, the health arm of the National Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  37. Jalowiec, A. (1987). Jalowiec Coping Scale (reversed version of 1977). Chicago, IL.: Loyola University.Google Scholar
  38. Kiely, S., & Sevastos, P. (2008). Emotional labour: A significant interpersonal stressor. InPsych, 30(2), 16–17.Google Scholar
  39. Lawler, E. J. (2001). An affect theory of social exchange. American Journal of Sociology, 107(2), 321–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lazarus, R., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  41. Lemke, S., & Moos, R. H. (1987). Measuring the social climate of congregate residences for older people: Sheltered Care Environment Scale. Psychology and Aging, 2(1), 20–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Litwak, E. (1985). Helping the elderly: The complimentary roles of informal networks and informal systems. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  43. Luthans, F. (2002). Positive organizational behavior: Developing and managing psychological strengths. The Academy of Management Executive, 16(1), 57–72.Google Scholar
  44. Luthans, F., Avey, J. B., Avolio, B. J., Norman, S. M., & Combs, G. M. (2006). Psychological capital development: Toward a micro-intervention. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(3), 387–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Luthans, F., Avey, J. B., Avolio, B. J., & Peterson, S. J. (2010). The development and resulting performance impact of positive psychological capital. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 21(1), 41–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Luthans, F., Avey, J. B., & Patera, J. L. (2008). Experimental analysis of a web-based training intervention to develop positive psychological capital. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 7(2), 209–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Luthans, F., Youssef, C. M., & Avolio, B. J. (2007). Psychological capital: Investing and developing positive organizational behavior. Positive Organizational Behavior, 1(2), 9–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Maddux, J., & Stanley, M. (1986). Self-Efficacy Theory in contemporary psychology: An overview. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 4(3), 249–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Marszał-Wiśniewska, M., & Siembab, M. (2012). Power and the self-ascription of agency and communion. Current Psychology, 31(1), 6–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Martin, B., & King, D. (2008). Who Cares for Older Australians? A picture of the residential and community based aged care workforce. (2007). Adelaide: National Institute of Labour Studies. Australia: Flinders University.Google Scholar
  51. Mavromaras, K., Knight, G., Isherwood, L., Crettenden, A., Flavel, J., Karmel, T., et al. (2017). The Aged Care Workforce, 2016. Canberra: National Institute of Labour Studies, Flinders University, Australia.Google Scholar
  52. McCallion, P., Toseland, R. W., Lacey, D., & Banks, S. (1999). Educating nursing assistants to communicate more effectively with nursing home residents with dementia. The Gerontologist, 39(5), 546–558.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Michie, S., & Williams, S. (2003). Reducing work related psychological ill health and sickness absence: A systematic literature review. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 60, 3–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Milhabet, I., & Verlhiac, J. F. (2011). Social acceptance of comparative optimism and realism. Psychological Reports, 109(2), 393–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Moos, R., & Tsu, V. (1977). Coping with physical illness. New York, NY: Plenum Medical Book Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Noblet, A., Graffam, J., & McWilliams, J. (2008). Sources of well-being and commitment of staff in the Australian Disability Employment Services. Health and Social Care in the Community, 16(2), 137–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Panaccio, A., & Vandenberghe, C. (2009). Perceived organizational support, organizational commitment and psychological well-being: A longitudinal study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75(2), 224–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pillemer, K., Meador, R., Henderson, C. R., Robison, J., Hegeman, C., Graham, E., et al. (2008). A facility specialist model for improving retention of nursing home staff: Results from a randomized, controlled study. The Gerontologist, 48, 80–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pillemer, K., & Moore, D. W. (1989). Abuse of patients in nursing homes: Findings from a survey of staff. The Gerontologist, 29(3), 314–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pillemer, K., Suitor, J., Henderson, C. R., Meador, R., Schultz, L., Robison, J., et al. (2003). A cooperative communication intervention for nursing home staff and family members of residents. The Gerontologist, 43(S2), 96–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pitfield, C., Shahriyarmolki, K., & Livingston, G. (2011). A systematic review of stress in staff caring for people with dementia living in 24-hour care settings. International Psychogeriatrics, 23(1), 4–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Radloff, L. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychosocial Measurement, 1, 385–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rhoades, L., & Eisenberger, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support: A review of the literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 698–714.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Robison, J., Curry, L., Gruman, C., Porter, M., Henderson, C. R., & Pillemer, K. (2007). Partners in caregiving in a special care environment: Cooperative communication between staff and families on dementia units. The Gerontologist, 47(4), 504–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rosen, J., Mulsant, B. H., Kollar, M., Kastango, K. B., Mazumdar, S., & Fox, D. (2002). Mental health training for nursing home staff using computer-based interactive video: A 6-month randomized trial. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 3(5), 291–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rothmann, S., Mostert, K., & Strydom, M. (2006). A psychometric evaluation of the job demands-resources scale in South Africa. Journal of Industrial Psychology, 32(4), 76–86.Google Scholar
  67. Specktor, P. E. (2008). Industrial & Organizational Behavior. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  68. Stirin Tzur, K., Ganzach, Y., & Pazy, A. (2016). On the positive and negative effects of self-efficacy on performance: Reward as a moderator. Human Performance, 29(5), 362–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Turner, J. A., Holtzman, S., & Mancl, L. (2007). Mediators, moderators, and predictors of therapeutic change in cognitive-behavioral therapy for chronic pain. Pain, 127(3), 276–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Vernooij-Dassen, M. J., Faber, M. J., Olde Rikkert, M. G., Koopmans, R. T., Van Achterberg, T., Braat, D. D., et al. (2009). Dementia care and labour market: The role of job satisfaction. Aging & Mental Health, 13(3), 383–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. West, B. J., Patera, J. L., & Carsten, M. K. (2009). Team level positivity: Investigating positive psychological capacities and team level outcomes. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30(2), 249–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Windle, G. (2011). What is resilience? A review and concept analysis. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology, 21(2), 152–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Zarit, S. H., Todd, P. A., & Zarit, J. M. (1986). Subjective burden of husbands and wives as caregivers: A longitudinal study. The Gerontologist, 26(3), 260–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Zimmerman, S., Mitchell, C. M., Reed, D., Preisser, J. S., Fletcher, S., Beeber, A. S., et al. (2010). Outcomes of a dementia care training program for staff in nursing homes and residential care/assisted living settings. Alzheimer’s Care Today, 11(2), 83–99.Google Scholar
  75. Zimmerman, S., Williams, C. S., Reed, P. S., Boustani, M., Preisser, J. S., Heck, E., et al. (2005). Attitudes, stress, and satisfaction of staff who care for residents with dementia. The Gerontologist, 45(1), 96–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kate-Ellen J. Elliott
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jennifer L. Scott
    • 2
  • Christine M. Stirling
    • 3
  • Angela J. Martin
    • 4
  1. 1.Wicking Dementia Research & Education Centre, College of Health & Medicine, University of TasmaniaHobartAustralia
  2. 2.Division of Psychology, School of MedicineCollege of Health & Medicine, University of TasmaniaHobartAustralia
  3. 3.School of NursingCollege of Health & Medicine, University of TasmaniaHobartAustralia
  4. 4.Tasmanian School of Business & EconomicsUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia

Personalised recommendations