Advertisement

Promoting Resilience Through Aging-Friendly Community Initiatives: Opportunities and Challenges

  • Amanda J. Lehning
Chapter

Abstract

In recent decades, a growing number of cities and towns have implemented aging-friendly community initiatives (AFCIs), which aim to create places where older adults are involved, valued, and supported (Alley et al., Journal of Gerontological Social Work 49(1–2):1–18, 2007). Aging-friendly communities promote a better person–environment fit by modifying the physical and social environment to support older adults’ health, well-being, and the ability to age in place. AFCIs reflect a shift among foundations, advocacy groups, and researchers toward reframing (Frameworks Institute, Aging, 2016) or disrupting aging (Jenkins, Disrupt aging: A bold new path to living your best life at every age. Public Affairs, New York, 2016) by focusing attention not only on the challenges but also on the benefits of an aging society for individuals, families, and communities. The ultimate purpose of aging-friendly efforts is to allow community residents to live full and meaningful lives across the life course, even in the face of not only age-related physical and cognitive changes but also psychological and social changes.

Keywords

Community Resilience Age-friendly Social support Aging-community 

References

  1. AARP Public Policy Institute. (2005). Beyond 50.05: A report to the nation on livable communities: Creating environments for successful aging. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. AARP Public Policy Institute and National Alliance for Caregiving. (2015). Caregiving in the U.S. Retrieved from: http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/ppi/2015/caregiving-in-the-united-states-2015-report-revised.pdf.
  3. Allen, S. M., Pette, E. R., & Mor, V. (2014). The adverse consequences of unmet need among older persons living in the community: Dual-eligible versus Medicare. Journals of Gerontology: Series B, 69(1), S51–S58.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbu124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alley, D., Liebig, P., Pynoos, J., Banerjee, T., & Choi, I. H. (2007). Creating elder-friendly communities: Preparations for an aging society. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 49(1–2), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ambrose Gallagher, N., Gretebeck, K. A., Robinson, J. C., Torres, E. R., Murphy, S. L., & Martyn, K. K. (2010). Neighborhood factors relevant for walking in older, urban, African American adults. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 18(1), 99–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. American Psychological Association. (2015). The road to resilience. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  7. Aneshensel, C. S., Wight, R. G., Miller-Martinez, D., Botticello, A. L., Karlamangla, A. S., & Seeman, T. G. (2007). Urban neighborhoods and depressive symptoms among older adults. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 6B, S52–S59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baltes, P. B., & Baltes, M. M. (Eds.). (1990). Psychological perspectives on successful aging: The model of selective optimization with compensation. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Barron, J. S., Tan, E. J., Yu, Q., Song, M., McGill, S., & Fried, L. P. (2009). Potential for intensive volunteering to promote the health of older adults in fair health. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 86(4), 641–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bloomberg, M. R., & Quinn, C. C. (2009). Age friendly NYC: Enhancing our city’s livability for older New Yorkers. Retrieved from http://www.nyc.gov/html/dfta/downloads/pdf/age_friendly/agefriendlynyc.pdf.
  11. Bolton, K. W., Praetorius, R. T., & Smith-Osborne, A. (2016). Resilience protective factors in an older adult population: A qualitative interpretive meta-synthesis. Social Work Research, 40(3), 171–182.Google Scholar
  12. Bradley, E. H., McGraw, S. A., Curry, L., Buckser, A., King, K. L., Kasl, S. V., et al. (2002). Expanding the Andersen model: The role of psychosocial factors in long-term care use. Health Services Research, 37(5), 1221–1242.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.01053.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Buffel, T., Handler, S., & Phillipson, C. (Eds.). (2018). Age-friendly cities and communities: A global perspective. Bristol UK: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  14. Buffel, T., & Phillipson, C. (2012). Ageing in urban environments: Developing ‘age-friendly’ cities. Critical Social Policy, 32(4), 597–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Buffel, T., & Phillipson, C. (2016). Can global cities by ‘age-friendly cities’? Urban development and ageing populations. Cities, 55, 94–100.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2016.03.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burman, L. E., & Johnson, R. W. (2007). A proposal to finance long-term care services through Medicare with an income tax surcharge. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.Google Scholar
  17. Burns, V. F., Lavoie, J., & Rose, D. (2012). Revisiting the role of neighborhood change in social exclusion and inclusion of older people. Journal of Aging Research, 2012, 1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/148287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Calsyn, R. J., & Winter, J. P. (1999). Predicting specific service awareness dimensions. Research on Aging, 21, 762–780.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0164027599216003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Healthy aging. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/AAG/aging.htm.
  20. Clark, K., & Glicksman, A. (2012). Age-friendly Philadelphia: Bringing diverse networks together around aging issues. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 26(1–3), 121–136.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02763893.2012.655662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cvitkovich, Y., & Wister, A. (2001). The importance of transportation and prioritization of environmental needs to sustain well-being among older adults. Environment and Behavior, 33(6), 809–829.  https://doi.org/10.1177/00139160121973250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Echeverria, S., Diez-Roux, A. V., Shea, S., Borrell, L. N., & Jackson, S. (2008). Associations of neighborhood problems and neighborhood social cohesion with mental health and health behaviors: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Health & Place, 14(4), 853–865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Emlet, C. A., & Moceri, J. T. (2012). The importance of social connectedness in building age-friendly communities. Journal of Aging Research, 2012, 1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/173247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eshel, Y., Kimhi, S., Lahad, M., & Leykin, D. (2016). Individual, community, and national resiliencies and age: Are older people less resilient than younger individuals? American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 24(8), 644–647.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2016.03.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics. (2016). Older Americans 2016: Key indicators of well-being. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  26. Feldman, P. H., Oberlink, M. R., Simantov, E., & Gursen, M. D. (2004). A tale of two older Americas: Community opportunities and challenges: AdvantAge Initiative 2003 national survey of adults aged 65 and older. New York, NY: Center for Home Care Policy and Research.Google Scholar
  27. Fiori, K. L., Smith, J., & Antonucci, T. C. (2007). Social network types among older adults: A mul-tidimensional approach. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 62B, 322–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. FrameWorks Institute. (2016). Aging. Retrieved from: http://frameworksinstitute.org/reframing-aging.html.
  29. Freedman, V. A., & Spillman, B. C. (2014). Disability and care needs among older Americans. The Milbank Quarterly, 92(3), 509–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fuller-Thompson, E., Nuru-Jeter, A., Minkler, M., & Guralnik, J. M. (2009). Black-White differences in disability among older Americans: Further untangling the role of race and socioeconomic status. Journal of Aging and Health, 21, 677–698.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0898264309338296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gitlin, L. N., Corcoran, M., Winter, L., Boyce, A., & Hauck, W. W. (2001). A randomized, con-trolled trial of a home environmental intervention effect on efficacy and upset in caregivers and on daily function of persons with dementia. The Gerontologist, 41, 4–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gonyea, J. G., & Hudson, R. B. (2015). Emerging models of age-friendly communities: A framework for understanding inclusion. Public Policy & Aging Report, 25(1), 9–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Greenfield, E. A. (2012). Using ecological frameworks to advance a field of research, practice, and policy on aging-in-place initiatives. The Gerontologist, 52, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Greenfield, E. A., Oberlink, M., Scharlach, A. E., Neal, M. B., & Stafford, P. B. (2015). Age-friendly community initiatives: Conceptual issues and key questions. The Gerontologist, 55, 191–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hanson, D., & Emlet, C. A. (2006). Assessing a community’s elder friendliness: A case example of the AdvantAge Initiative. Family & Community Health, 29(4), 266–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Harris, P. B. (2008). Another wrinkle in the debate about successful aging: The undervalued concept of resilience and the lived experience of dementia. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 67(1), 43–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hayutin, A. (2012). Global trends in population aging: Exacerbating social exclusion? The Gerontologist, 52(S1), 457–457.Google Scholar
  38. He, S., Craig, B. A., Xu, H., Covincky, K. E., Stallard, E., Thomas, J., et al. (2015). Unmet need for ADL assistance is associated with mortality among older adults with mild disability. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 70, 1128–1132.  https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glv028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Heckhausen, J., & Schulz, R. (1995). A life-span theory of control. Psychological Review, 102(2), 284–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hildon, Z., Montgomery, S. M., Blane, D., Wiggins, R. D., & Netuveli, G. (2010). Examining resilience of quality of life in the face of health-related and psychosocial adversity at older ages: What is ‘right’ about the way we age? The Gerontologist, 50, 36–47.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnp067.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Hill, T. D., & Angel, R. J. (2005). Neighborhood disorder, psychological distress, and heavy drinking. Social Science and Medicine, 61(5), 965–975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hinterlong, J. (2006). Racial disparities in health among older adults: examining the role of productive engagement. Health and Social Work, 31, 275–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jenkins, J. (2016). Disrupt aging: A bold new path to living your best life at every age. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  44. Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University. (2014). Housing America’s older adults: Meeting the needs of an aging population. Retrieved from http://www.jchs.harvard.edu/research/housing_americas_older_adults.
  45. Kania, J., & Kramer, M. (2011). Collective impact. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 9(1), 36–41.Google Scholar
  46. Kerr, J., Rosenberg, D., & Frank, L. (2012). The role of the built environment in healthy aging. Journal of Planning Literature, 27(1), 43–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lawton, M. P. (1982). Competence, environmental press, and the adaptation of older people. In M. Lawton, P. Windley, & T. Byerts (Eds.), Aging and the environment: Theoretical approaches (pp. 33–59). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  48. Lawton, M. P. (1998). Environment and aging: Theory revisited. Contributions to the Study of Aging, 26, 1–32.Google Scholar
  49. Lawton, M. P., & Nahemow, L. (1973). Ecology and the aging process. In C. Eisdorf & M. Lawton (Eds.), The psychology of adult development and aging (pp. 619–670). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lawton, M. P., & Simon, B. (1968). The ecology of social relationships in housing for the elderly. The Gerontologist, 8, 108–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lehning, A. J., & Greenfield, E. A. (2017). Research on age-friendly community initiatives: Taking stock and moving forward. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 31(2), 178–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lehning, A. J., Scharlach, A. E., Price Wolf, J., Davitt, J., & Wiseman, H. (2015). Perceived challenges to the sustainability of community-based aging initiatives: Findings from a national study of Villages. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 58(7–8), 684–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lehning, A. J., Smith, R. J., & Kim, K. (2017). “Friendly” initiatives: An emerging approach to improve communities for vulnerable populations. Journal of Policy Practice, 16(1), 46–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Liu, S. Y., & Lapane, K. L. (2009). Residential modifications and decline in physical function among community-dwelling older adults. The Gerontologist, 49(3), 344–354.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnp033.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Lui, C., Everingham, J., Warburton, J., Cuthill, M., & Bartlett, H. (2009). What makes a community age-friendly: A review of international literature. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 28(3), 116–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Maier, H., & Klumb, P. (2005). Social participation and survival at older ages: Is the effect driven by activity content or context? European Journal of Ageing, 2, 31–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Marottoli, R. A., Mendes de Leon, C. F., Glass, T. A., Williams, C. S., Cooney, L. M., & Berkman, L. F. (2000). Consequences of driving cessation: Decreased out-of-home activity levels. Journals of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 55B, 334–340.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/55.6.S334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Menec, V. H., Means, R., Keating, N., Parkhurst, G., & Eales, J. (2011). Conceptualizing age-friendly communities. Canadian Journal on Aging, 30(3), 479–493.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0714980811000237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mezuk, B., & Rebok, G. W. (2008). Social integration and social support among older adults following driving cessation. Journals of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 63B, 298–303.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/63.5.S298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. National Association of Area Agencies on Aging. (2016). Policy priorities 2016: Fiscal year 2017 appropriations. Retrieved from: http://www.n4a.org/files/n4a_2016PolicyPriorities_FY2017Approps(1).pdf.
  61. National Health Policy Forum (2014). National spending for long-term services and supports, 2012. Retrieved from: https://www.nhpf.org/library/the-basics/Basics_LTSS_03-27-14.pdf.
  62. Neal, M., DeLaTorre, A., & Carder, P. (2014). Age-friendly Portland: A university-city-community partnership. Journal of Aging & Social Policy, 26(1), 88–101.  https://doi.org/10.1080/08959420.2014.854651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. New York Academy of Medicine. (2012). Creating an age-friendly NYC one neighborhood at a time. New York, NY: New York Academy of Medicine.Google Scholar
  64. Newcomer, R., & Griffin, C. (2000). Community planning and the elderly. In R. Rubinstein, M. Moss, & M. Kleban (Eds.), The many dimensions of aging (pp. 239–252). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  65. Okun, M. A., Yeung, E. W., & Brown, S. (2013). Volunteering by older adults and risk of mortal-ity: A meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging, 28(2), 564–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ouwehand, C., de Ridder, D. T., & Bensing, J. M. (2007). A review of successful aging mod-els: Proposing proactive coping as an important additional strategy. Clinical Psychology Review, 27(8), 873–884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Redfoot, D., Feinberg, L., & Houser, A. (2013). The aging of the baby boom and the growing care gap: A look at future declines in the availability of family caregivers. Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute.Google Scholar
  68. Roberto, K. A., & Blieszner, R. (2015). Diverse family structures and the care of older persons. Canadian Journal on Aging, 34(3), 305–320.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0714980815000288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rosenbloom, S., & Herbel, S. (2009). The safety and mobility patterns of older women: Do current patterns foretell the future? Public Works Management & Policy, 13(4), 338–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rowe, J. W., & Kahn, R. L. (2000). Successful aging and disease prevention. Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, 7(1), 70–77.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1073-4449(00)70008-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rowles, G. D. (1983). Place and personal identity in old age: Observations from Appalachia. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 3, 299–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychologi-cal well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(6), 1069–1081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sartori, A. C., Wadley, V. G., Clay, O. J., Parisi, J. M., Rebok, G. W., & Crowe, M. (2011). The rela-tionship between cognitive function and life space: The potential role of personal control beliefs. Psychology and Aging, 27(2), 364–374.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025212.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Scharf, T., Phillipson, C., & Kingston, P. (2003). Older people in deprived neighbourhoods: Social exclusion and quality of life in old age. Swindon, UK: ESRC Growing Older Programme.Google Scholar
  75. Scharlach, A. E. (2012). Creating aging-friendly communities in the United States. Ageing International, 37(1), 25–38.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12126-011-9140-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Scharlach, A. E., & Lehning, A. J. (2013). Aging-friendly communities and social inclusion. Ageing & Society, 33, 110–136.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X12000578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Scharlach, A. E., & Lehning, A. J. (2016). Creating aging-friendly communities. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Scharlach, A. E., Kellam, R., Ong, N., Baskin, A., Goldstein, C., & Fox, P. J. (2006). Cultural attitudes and caregiver service use. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 47, 133–156.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J083v47n01_09.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Schoeni, R. F., Martin, L. G., Andreski, P. M., & Freedman, V. A. (2005). Persistent and growing socioeconomic disparities in disability among the elderly: 1982–2002. American Journal of Public Health, 95(11), 2065–2070.  https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2004.048744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schulz, R., & Heckhausen, J. (1996). A life span model of successful aging. American Psychologist, 51, 702–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Spillman, B. C., & Pezzin, L. E. (2000). Potential and active family caregivers: Changing net-works and the “sandwich generation”. Milbank Quarterly, 78(3), 347–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Stearns, S. C., Bernard, S. L., Fasick, S. B., Schwartz, R., Konrad, T. R., Ory, M. G., et al. (2000). The economic implications of self-care: The effect of lifestyle, functional adaptations, and medical self-care among a national sample of Medicare beneficiaries. American Journal of Public Health, 90(10), 1608–1612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tang, F., & Lee, Y. (2011). Social support networks and expectations for aging in place and mov-ing. Research on Aging, 33(4), 444–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. U.S. Census Bureau. (2014). Coresident grandparents and their grandchildren: 2012. Retrieved from: https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2014/demo/p20-576.pdf.
  85. U.S. Census Bureau. (2017). The nation’s older population is still growing. Retrieved from: https://www.census.gov/newsroom/press-releases/2017/cb17-100.html.
  86. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Aging Initiative. (2011). Growing smarter, living healthier: A guide to smart growth and active ageing. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/aging/bhc/guide/2009_Aging.pdf.
  87. U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO). (2004). Transportation—Disadvantaged seniors: Efforts to enhance senior mobility could benefit from additional guidance and information (Report No. GAO-04-971). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  88. Weir, P. L., Meisner, B. A., & Baker, J. (2010). Successful aging across the years: Does one model fit everyone? Journal of Health Psychology, 15(5), 680–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wiles, J. L., Wild, K., Kerse, N., & Allen, R. E. (2012). Resilience from the point of view of older people: “There’s still life beyond a funny knee”. Social Science & Medicine, 74, 416–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. World Health Organization. (nd). Age-friendly world. Retrieved from: https://extranet.who.int/agefriendlyworld/.
  91. World Health Organization. (2007). Global age-friendly cities: A guide. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/ageing/publications/Global_age_friendly_cities_Guide_English.pdf.
  92. World Health Organization Centre for Health Development. (2015). Measuring the age-friendliness of cities: A guide to using core indicators. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/kobe_centre/ageing/age_friendly_cities/AFC_Indicator_Guide_Pilot_English.pdf.
  93. Xu, H., Covinsky, K. E., Stallard, E., Thomas, J., & Sands, L. P. (2012). Insufficient help for activity of daily living disabilities and risk of all-cause hospitalization. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 60, 927–933.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2012.03926.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Yen, I. H., & Anderson, L. A. (2012). Built environment and mobility of older adults: Important policy and practice efforts. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 60(5). 951–956.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2012.03949.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Social WorkUniversity of MarylandBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations