Diagnostic Techniques: Angiography

  • Kaan Gündüz
  • Yağmur Seda Yeşiltaş


Fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) are usually not essential in the diagnosis of intraocular tumors except for retinal tumors, when these ancillary tests assist in establishing the correct diagnosis. Among choroidal tumors, FA and ICGA are particularly useful in establishing the diagnosis of choroidal hemangioma, revealing choroidal folds, and ruling out simulating conditions including central serous chorioretinopathy. In addition, over the past few decades, these dye-based invasive diagnostic procedures have played a pivotal role in expanding our understanding of retinal and choroidal anatomy, pathology, and pathophysiology. Ocular angiography techniques are also used to assess disease progression and treatment side effects (e.g., radiation retinopathy). The use of composite image technology and wide-angle angiography systems has made it possible to see multiple or extensive areas of interest on one photograph improving diagnostic accuracy.

Fluorescein angiography has recently been supplemented by optical coherence tomography angiography in the evaluation of tumors in the macular region. Optical coherence tomography angiography is a non-invasive, dye-less procedure that provides information concerning both the inner and outer retinal vascular plexuses as well as the choroid. Intraocular tumors can manifest around the optic disc and in the macula but also anywhere in the fundus; therefore, the importance of FA and ICGA in the evaluation of more peripheral tumors and simulating conditions still prevails.


Fluorescein Indocyanine green Angiography Fluorescence Intrinsic tumor vessels Double circulation Washout phenomenon Leopard skin appearance Fluorescein cap sign Leakage Staining 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kaan Gündüz
    • 1
  • Yağmur Seda Yeşiltaş
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyAnkara University Faculty of MedicineAnkaraTurkey

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