Parent- and Preschool-Teacher-Perceived Strengths Among Black and Latino Boys in Miami: Links to Early Success in Elementary School
Children’s social and behavioral skills prior to school entry are important components of school readiness that relate to long-term academic success. Parents and teachers, however, can have different perceptions of children’s strengths. We examined parent and preschool teacher reports of the social and behavioral skills of predominantly low-income Black and Latino preschool boys (N = 13,448) on the Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA; Lebuffe and Naglieri in Devereux early childhood assessment. Kaplan Press, Lewisville, NC, 1999). We also examined the extent to which these reports predicted later academic outcomes in kindergarten and first grade. Teachers rated boys of color as having higher social skills and behavioral strengths than parents on all subscales, with parents of Black boys being particularly “tough” with their ratings. Latino preschoolers were perceived as showing slightly stronger skills than their Black peers. Both parent and teacher reports of child behavior at age 4 predicted GPA, test scores, and school suspension and retention in K and first grade, with parent ratings of socio-emotional skills being more predictive of later academic performance for Black boys than for Latino boys.
KeywordsParent Preschool teacher Perceptions Social skills Behavioral strengths Agreement Black Latino First-grade achievement
This multi-agency, university–community collaborative project was supported by the Early Learning Coalition of Miami-Dade/Monroe and The Children’s Trust. The Trust is a dedicated source of revenue established by voter referendum to improve the lives of children and families in Miami-Dade County. We would like to thank the dedicated staff at the Early Learning Coalition of Miami-Dade/Monroe, Miami-Dade County Child Development Services, and Miami-Dade County Public Schools, as well as the participating children, families, and teachers.
- American Psychological Association. (2012). Ethnic and racial disparities in education: Psychology’s contribution to understand and reducing disparities. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/ed/resources/racial-disparities.pdf.
- Ansari, A., & Winsler, A. (2016). Kindergarten readiness for low-income and ethnically diverse children attending publicly funded preschool programs in Miami. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 37, 69–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2016.06.002.
- Ansari, A., López, M., Manfra, L., Bleiker, C., Dinehart, L., Hartman, S., Winsler, A. (2017). Differential third-grade outcomes associated with attending publicly funded preschool programs for low-income Latino children. Child Development, 88(5), 1743–1756. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12663.
- Beebe-Frankenberger, M., Lane, K., Bocian, K., Gresham, F., MacMillan, D. (2005). Students with or at risk for problem behavior: Betwixt and between teacher and parent expectations. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 49(2), 10–17. https://doi.org/10.3200/PSFL.49.2.10-17.
- Cooper, C. W. (2003). The detrimental impact of teacher bias: Lessons learned from the standpoint of African American mothers. Teacher Education Quarterly., 30(2), 101–116.Google Scholar
- Darling-Hammond, L., & Post, L. (2000). Inequality in teaching and schooling: Supporting high quality teaching and leadership in low income schools. In R. D. Kahlenberg (Ed.), A notion at risk: Preserving public education as an engine for social mobility (pp. 208–233). New York, NY: Century Foundation Press.Google Scholar
- De Feyter, J. J., Parada, M. D., Hartman, S., & Winsler, A. (2018). The early academic resilience of children from low-income, immigrant families. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
- Dunbar, A. S., Leerkes, E. M., Coard, S. I., Supple, A. J., & Calkins, S. (2017). An integrative conceptual model of parental racial/ethnic and emotion socialization and links to children’s social-emotional development among African American families. Child Development Perspectives, 11(1), 16–22. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Duncan, G. J., Dowsett, C. J., Claessens, A., Magnuson, K., Huston, A. C., Klevbanov, P., … Japel, C. (2007). School readiness and later achievement. Developmental Psychology, 43(6), 1428–1446. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16184.108.40.2068.
- Economic Policy Institute. (n.d.). Poverty. Retrieved from http://www.stateofworkingamerica.org/fact-sheets/poverty/.
- ETS. (2011). Policy notes: News from the ETS policy information center. Policy & Evaluation Research Center, 19(3). Retrieved from https://www.ets.org/Media/Research/pdf/PIC-PNV19n3.pdf.
- Fleury, V. P., Thompson, J. L., & Wong, C. (2015). Learning how to be a student: An overview of instructional practices targeting school readiness skills for preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder. Behavior Modification, 39, 69–97. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445514551384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Galindo, C., Fuller, B. (2010). The social competence of Latino kindergartners and growth in mathematical understanding. Developmental Psychology, 46(3), 579–592. https://doi.org/10.1037/a001782.
- Gandara, P. (2010). The Latino education crisis. Educational Leadership, 67, 24–30.Google Scholar
- Garcia Coll, C., & Pachter, L. M. (2002). Ethnic and minority parenting. In M. H. Bonstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting vol. 4: Social conditions and applied parenting. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Gay, G. (2010). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research and practice. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
- Gershenson, S., Hart, C. M. D., Lindsay, C. A., & Papageorge, N. W. (2017). The long-run impacts of same-race teachers. Working paper#10630. Institute of Labor Economics. Retrieved from https://www.iza.org/publications/dp/10630.
- Gilliam, W. S. (2005). Pre-kindergarteners left behind: Expulsion rates in state prekindergarten systems. New Haven, CT: Yale University, Child Study Center. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.582.4536&rep=rep1&type=pdf.
- Hall, A. V., Hall, E. V., & Perry, J. (2016). Black and blue. Exploring racial bias and law enforcement in the killings of unarmed Black male civilians. Retrieved from http://scholarship.sha.cornell.edu/articles/887.
- Halle, T., Whittaker, J. V., Zepeda, M., Rothenberg, L., Wessel, J., Anderson, R., … Buysee, V. (2014). The social–emotional development of dual language learners: Looking back at existing research and moving forward with purpose. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29, 734–749. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2013.12.002.
- Hughes, D., Rodriguez, J., Smith, E., Johnson, D., Stevenson, H., & Spicer, P. (2006). Parents’ ethnic-racial socialization practices: A review of research and directions for future study. Developmental Psychology, 42(5), 747–770. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16220.127.116.117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Iruka, U. I., Curenton, M., & Gardner, S. (2015). How changes in home and neighborhood environment factors are related to change in Black children’s academic and social development from kindergarten to third grade. The Journal of Negro Education, 84(3), 282–297. https://doi.org/10.7709/jnegroeducation.84.3.0282.
- Keys, T. D., Farkas, G., Burchinal, M. R., Duncan, G. J., Vandell, D. L., Li, W., … Howes, C. (2013). Preschool center quality and school readiness: Quality effects and variation by demographic and child characteristics. Child Development, 84(4), 1171–1190.Google Scholar
- Kim, Y. K., Curby, T. W., Winsler, A. (2014). Child, family, and school characteristics related to English proficiency development among low-income, dual language learners. Developmental Psychology, 50(12), 2600–2613. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038050.
- LeBuffe, P. A., & Naglieri, J. A. (1999). Devereux early childhood assessment. Lewisville, NC: Kaplan Press.Google Scholar
- Lloyd, J. E., & Hertzman, C. (2009). From kindergarten readiness to fourth-grade assessment: Longitudinal analysis with linked population data. Social Science & Medicine, 68(1), 123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.09.063.
- Long, M., Conger, D., McGhee, R., & Kennedy, A. (2016). Effects of advanced placement science courses on students’ science interest and ability: Evaluation from a randomized control trial. Paper presented at the Association for Public Policy and Management.Google Scholar
- Mathew, D., Conway-Turner, J., & Winsler, A. (2016, April). Predictors of school suspension in elementary school for low-income, ethnically diverse children. Poster presented at the annual conference of the American Educational Research Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Miller, L., Burke, J., Troyb, E., Knoch, K., Herlihy, L., & Fein, D. (2016). Preschool predictors of school-age academic achievement in autism spectrum disorder. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 31(2), 382–403. https://doi.org/10.1080/13854046.2016.1225665.
- Miami Dade County Public School. (2017). Statistical highlights: M-DCPS student membership.Google Scholar
- National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2011). Digest of education statistics. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/2011menu_tables.asp.
- Orfield, G., & Frankenberg, E., (2014) Increasingly segregated and unequal schools as courts reverse policy. Educational Administration Quarterly, 50(5), 718–734. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X14548942.
- Orfield, G., & Lee, C. (2005). Why segregation matters: Poverty and educational inequality. The Civil Rights Project at Harvard University. Retrieved from https://www.civilrightsproject.ucla.edu/research/k-12-education/integration-and-diversity/why-segregation-matters-poverty-and-educational-inequality/orfield-why-segregation-matters-2005.pdf.
- Parada, M., & Winsler, A. (2018). Trajectories of immigrant advantage from 3rd to 5th grade among Black and Latino students in Miami. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
- Peteet, B. J., Montgomery, L., & Weekes, C. J. (2015). Predictors of imposter phenomenon among talented ethnic minority undergraduate students. The Journal of Negro Education, 84(2), 175–186. https://doi.org/10.7709/jnegroeducation.84.2.0175.
- Phillips, D. A., Lipsey, W. M., Dodge, K. A., Haskins, R., Bassok, D., Burchinal, R. M., … Weiland, C. (2017). Puzzling it out: The current state of scientific knowledge on pre-kindergarten effects—A consensus statement. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/research/puzzling-it-out-the-current-state-of-scientific-knowledge-on-pre-kindergarten-effects/.
- Quintana, S. M., Aboud, F. E., Chao, R. K., Contreras-Grau, J., Cross W. E., Hudley, C., … Vietze, D. L. (2006). Race, ethnicity, and culture in child development: Contemporary research and future directions. Child Development, 77, 1129–1141.Google Scholar
- Reddick, R. J., Johnson, E. A., Jones, A., Lowe, T. A. J., Stone, A. N., & Thomas, J. (2017). Resilience, reconciliation, and redemption: An initial historical sketch of pioneering Black students in the plan II honors program. Journal of the National Collegiate Honors Council, 18(1) (Spring/Summer 2017).Google Scholar
- Rhoades, B. L., Warren, H. K., Domitrovich, C. E., & Greenberga, M. T. (2011). Examining the link between preschool social–emotional competence and first grade academic achievement: The role of attention skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26(2), 182–191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2010.07.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ricciardi, C., Haag, A., & Winsler, A. (2018). Factors associated with gifted educational placement and services for low-income, ethnically diverse children: Which students are breaking the barriers? Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
- Robinson, K., & Harris, A. (2013) Racial and social class differences in how parents respond to inadequate achievement: Consequences for children’s future achievement. Social Science Quarterly, 94(5), 1346–1371. https://doi.org/10.1111/ssqu.12007.
- Rothstein, R. (2017). The color of law (1st ed.). New York, NY: Liveright.Google Scholar
- Skiba, R. J., Michael, R. S., Nardo, A. C., & Peterson, R. L. (2002). The color of discipline: Sources of racial and gender disproportionality in school punishment. The Urban Review, 34, 317–342. doi:0042-0972/02/1200-0317/0.Google Scholar
- Skiba, R. J., Chung, C., Trachok, M., Baker, T. L., Sheya, A., & Hughes, R. L. (2014). Parsing disciplinary disproportionately: Contributions of infraction, student, school, characteristics to out-of-school suspension and expulsion. American Educational Research Journal, 51, 640–670. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831214541670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Suarez-Orozco, C., & Qin-Hilliard, D. B. (2004). Immigrant boys’ experiences in U.S. schools. In N. Way & J. Y. Chu (Eds.), Adolescent boys: Exploring diverse cultures of boyhood (pp. 295–316). New York, NY: New York University Press.Google Scholar
- Tavassolie, T., & Winsler, A. (in preparation). Outcomes of mandatory third grade retention from high-stakes test performance for low-income, ethnically diverse children.Google Scholar
- Tavassolie, T., López, C., De Feyter, J., Hartman, S. C., & Winsler, A. (2016). Migrant preschool children’s school readiness and early elementary school performance. Journal of Educational Research. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.2016.1261074.
- Trask-Tate, A. J., Cunningham, M., & Francois, M. (2010). The role of racial socialization in promoting the academic expectations of African American adolescent: Realities in a post-Brown era. Journal of Negro Education, 79(2), 137–150.Google Scholar
- Uncommon Schools. (2018). Excellence boys. Retrieved from http://excellenceboys.uncommonschools.org/excellence-boys/results.
- U.S. Department of Education. (2016). The state of racial diversity in the educator workforce. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/highered/racial-diversity/state-racial-diversity-workforce.pdf.
- U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2016). Status and trends in the education of racial and ethnics groups 2016. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2016/2016007.pdf.
- Vega, D., & Moore, J. L. (2016). Where are all the Latino males in gifted programs. In J. L. Davis & J. L. Moore III (Eds.), Advances in Race and Ethnicity in Education: Vol. 3. Gifted children of color around the world: Diverse needs, exemplary practices, and directions for the future (pp. 87–103). Emerald Group Publishing.Google Scholar
- Winsler, A., Tran, H., Hartman, S. C., Madigan, A. L., Manfra, L., & Bleiker, C. (2008). School readiness gains made by ethnically diverse children in poverty attending center-based childcare and public-school pre-kindergarten programs. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23, 314–329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2008.02.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Winsler, A., Burchinal, M., Tien, H., Peisner-Feinberg, E., Espinosa. L, Castro, D.C., LaForett, D., Kim, Y.K., & De Feyter, J. (2014). Early development among dual language learners: The roles of language use at home, maternal immigration, country of origin, and sociodemographics. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29, 750–764. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2014.02.008.
- Wright, B. L., & Counsell, S. L. (2018). The brilliance of Black boys: Cultivating school success in the early grades. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
- Yaluma, C. B., & Tyner, A. (2018). Is there a gifted gap? Gifted education in high poverty schools. Retrieved from http://edex.s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/publication/pdfs/%2801.31%29%20Is%20There%20a%20Gifted%20Gap%20-%20Gifted%20Education%20in%20High-Poverty%20Schools.pdf.
- Yoshikawa, H., Weiland, C., Brooks-Gunn, J., Burchinal, M., Espinosa, L., Gormley, W. T., … Zaslow, M. (2013). Investing in our future: The evidence base on preschool education. Retrieved from https://www.fcd-us.org/the-evidence-base-on-preschool/.