Biological Effects of Green-Synthesized Metal Nanoparticles: A Mechanistic View of Antibacterial Activity and Cytotoxicity

  • Suresh K. Verma
  • Ealisha Jha
  • Pritam Kumar Panda
  • Arun Thirumurugan
  • Mrutyunjay Suar
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 25)


Recent advancements in nanotechnology have pushed the boundary of nanomaterial studies and their applications so far that almost each and every aspect of science is looking for their application based on them. The extensive studies and industrial applications have raised demand for nanomaterial in leaps and bounds. To fulfill the demand, new strategies for their synthesis and industrial preparation have been discovered and applied. However, the logarithmic expansion of production of nanomaterials, especially metal and metal oxide nanomaterials, has slowly raised the issue of their toxicity and biocompatibility with respect to ecosystems and human health. Traditional synthesis of nanomaterials by chemical and physical synthesis procedures has been reported to impose higher toxicity on both ecosystems and human health. There are regular quests for new methods to discover biocompatible nanomaterials. In view of the above facts, green synthesis of nanomaterials, using biological agents, has been shown to be a solution to this issue. However, to address this issue, discussion about their detailed biological effects is urgently needed. To illuminate these concerns, this chapter provides a brief review of the current strategies for green synthesis of nanomaterials, especially focusing on metal and metal oxide nanoparticles and their detail mechanisms of biological effects in view of their antibacterial efficacy and cytotoxicity.


Green synthesis Metal oxide nanoparticles Antibacterial activity Cytotoxicity 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suresh K. Verma
    • 1
  • Ealisha Jha
    • 2
  • Pritam Kumar Panda
    • 3
  • Arun Thirumurugan
    • 4
  • Mrutyunjay Suar
    • 1
  1. 1.School of BiotechnologyKIIT UniversityBhubaneswarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Physics and Physical OceanographyMemorial University of NewfoundlandSt. John’sCanada
  3. 3.Division of Pediatrics, Hematology and OncologyUniversity of FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  4. 4.Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of ChileSantiagoChile

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