Anxiety Disorders

  • David W. DixonEmail author


Patients with intellectual disability (ID) are at increased risk of anxiety disorders compared to the general population. Diagnosis of anxiety disorders in those with severe to profound ID can be even more difficult due to difficulties with communication. Co-occurring psychiatric conditions can occur, and anxiety can often be misinterpreted as depression, delusions, or hallucinations.


Anxiety Intellectual disability Developmental disability Generalized anxiety disorder Panic disorder Selective mutism 


  1. 1.
    Fletcher RJ, Barnhill J, Cooper SA. DM-ID-2: diagnostic manual-intellectual disability: a textbook of diagnosis of mental disorders in persons with intellectual disability. Kingston: National Assn for the Dually Diagnosed Press; 2016.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). Arlington: American Psychiatric Pub; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Reiss S, Levitan GW, Szyszko J. Emotional disturbance and mental retardation: diagnostic overshadowing. Am J Ment Defic. 1982;86(6):567–74.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gentile JP, Gillig PM, editors. Psychiatry of intellectual disability: a practical manual. Hoboken: Wiley; 2012.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.San Antonio Military Medical CenterHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations