Traumatic Brain Injuries and Co-occurring Mental Illness

  • Emily Bien
  • Julie P. GentileEmail author


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an acquired brain injury induced by a physical force that leads to a temporary or permanent functional disruption or structural damage. According to the CDC ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Traumatic brain injury and concussion. TBI data and statistics. Access date 17 May 2018, 2013) [1], the yearly occurrences of TBI number around 2.8 million people in the United States, which resulted in 282,000 hospitalizations and 2.5 million emergency department visits. Approximately 50,000 people die from TBI each year. The most common cause of TBI is from falls, mostly among children ages 0–14 and adults ages 65 and older. However, motor- vehicle-, or traffic-related incidents cause the greatest number of TBI-related deaths. Over half of those diagnosed with TBI are male; additional risk factors include alcohol and drug misuse. Between 2007 and 2013, while rates of TBI-related ED visits increased by 47%, hospitalization rates decreased by 2.5% and mortality decreased by 5%. It is important to note that CDC estimates do not include the traumatic brain injuries occurring in the military and veterans, which would likely increase these numbers.


Traumatic brain injury Neurologic assessment Intellectual disability Developmental disability Seizure disorder Syndromes of intellectual disability 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryWright Patterson Air Force Base, Wright State UniversityDaytonUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryWright State UniversityDaytonUSA

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