Neurologic Conditions in Individuals with Intellectual Disability
Individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs) often suffer from co-occurring neurologic conditions, which can greatly affect their quality of life. These individuals are more likely to suffer from conditions such as seizure disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, dementia, delirium, and motor disorders (e.g., tics, antipsychotic-induced disorder). ID is commonly comorbid with other neurodevelopmental disorders, often before the child enters grade school. Sometimes ID is associated with the development of neurocognitive disorders later in life. ID may be associated with a known environmental factor (e.g., prenatal alcohol exposure) or genetic condition that can predispose to other neurologic problems (e.g., Down syndrome is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s dementia). Neurologic disorders can be difficult to diagnose in those with ID due to barriers in communication. Because these disorders increase impairment of personal, social, academic, or occupational functioning, identification can help clinicians improve assessment and treatment.
KeywordsIntellectual disability Neurology Cognitive Delirium Encephalopathy
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