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Individuals with intellectual disabilities often present for mental health evaluation with behavior problems, which may be related to under-diagnosed or under-treated medical conditions. It is important to be aware of the most common medical conditions that are overlooked and to maximize objective data when subjective data is limited by decreased self-report. Despite advances in preventive and medical care, age at death remains lower and mortality rates higher for persons with ID. Ng et al. (BMC Geriatr 17(1):269, 2017) found that older adults with ID in Sweden carry a higher mortality risk relative to the general population, mainly attributable to respiratory, central nervous, and circulatory systems. This chapter reviews common medical conditions associated with various syndromes of ID, as well as providing an organ system review outlining prevalence data and altered presentations seen in this patient population. Guidelines for preventive medical care are reviewed.
KeywordsMedical assessment Intellectual disability Developmental disability Seizure disorder Diabetes mellitus Syndromes of intellectual disability Multiple medical problems
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