Individuals with intellectual disabilities often present for mental health evaluation with behavior problems, which may be related to under-diagnosed or under-treated medical conditions. It is important to be aware of the most common medical conditions that are overlooked and to maximize objective data when subjective data is limited by decreased self-report. Despite advances in preventive and medical care, age at death remains lower and mortality rates higher for persons with ID. Ng et al. (BMC Geriatr 17(1):269, 2017) found that older adults with ID in Sweden carry a higher mortality risk relative to the general population, mainly attributable to respiratory, central nervous, and circulatory systems. This chapter reviews common medical conditions associated with various syndromes of ID, as well as providing an organ system review outlining prevalence data and altered presentations seen in this patient population. Guidelines for preventive medical care are reviewed.
KeywordsMedical assessment Intellectual disability Developmental disability Seizure disorder Diabetes mellitus Syndromes of intellectual disability Multiple medical problems
- 4.Jewell JA, Descartes M. Fragile X syndrome. eMedicine. 2016. Retrieved 6/10/18 from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article943776-clinical#b4.
- 7.Lazier J. Williams syndrome clinical presentation. eMedicine. 2015. Retrieved 6/10/2018 from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/893149-clinical.
- 12.Mundakel GT. Down syndrome clinical presentation. eMedicine. 2018. Retrieved 6/10/2018 from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/943216-clinical.
- 15.Ryan R. Intensive conference on dual diagnosis. In:The community circle. Denver: CME Event; 2003.Google Scholar
- 16.Scheimann A. Prader-Willi syndrome clinical presentation. eMedicine. 2017. Retrieved 6/10/2018 from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/947954-clinical#b1
- 18.Sullivan WF, Heng J, Cameron D, Lunsky Y, Cheetham T, Hennen B, Bradley EA, Berg JM, Korossy M, Forster-Gibson C, Gitta M, Stavrakaki C, McCreary B, Swift I. Consensus guidelines for primary health care of adults with developmental disabilities. Can Fam Physician. 2006;52:1410–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 20.van Timmeren EA, van der Putten AA, van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk HM, van der Schans CP, Waninge A. Prevalence of reported physical health problems in people with severe and profound intellectual and motor disabilities: a cross-sectional study of medical records and care plans. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2016;60(11):1109–18. https://doi.org/10.1111/jir.12298.. Epub 2016 May 20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar