An Insight of Multitudinous and Inveterate Pharmacological Applications of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel)

  • Fareeduddin Quadri Syed
  • Muqtadir Baig Mirza
  • Ayman I. Elkady
  • Khalid Rehman Hakeem
  • Saleh Alkarim


Since time numerous herbs and spices are used by humans for various health issues. Foeniculum vulgare Mill, popularly known as fennel, is one among them, which is the most widely used herb throughout the world. In traditional medicines, fennel has been used for multiple disorders related to the digestive, reproductive, respiratory and endocrine system. Fennel is used in more than 34 diseases and disorders. Fennel has carminative, galactagogue, oestrogenic, chemomodulatory, bronchodilatory, diuretic, vasorelaxant, antithrombotic, hypotensive, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidaemic, antispasmodic and memory-enhancing effect. Experimental evidence proves fennel as antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory, apoptotic and antimetastatic agent. Fennel is effectively used in anxiety, depression, Alzheimer’s disease, obesity, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), cataract, etc. Fennel seeds are rich in essential oils, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, fatty acids and amino acids.

Essential oil of fennel is widely studied as it has much pharmacological importance. Anethole is one among the active component of fennel’s essential oil which possesses antimetastatic, anticancer, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and hyperglycaemic activity. In this chapter, we aim to provide literature on morphology, nutritional content, phytochemistry and pharmacology applications of fennel. Foeniculum vulgare is a potential therapeutic agent providing the scope of further evaluation of various compounds for drug development and clinical uses.


Foeniculum vulgare Fennel Pharmacology Essential oils Anticancer 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fareeduddin Quadri Syed
    • 1
  • Muqtadir Baig Mirza
    • 1
  • Ayman I. Elkady
    • 1
  • Khalid Rehman Hakeem
    • 1
  • Saleh Alkarim
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological ScienceKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia

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