Advertisement

Mach’s Educational Theory and Practice

  • Michael R. MatthewsEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook book series (VCIY, volume 22)

Abstract

Ernst Mach (1838–1916) was one of the great philosopher-scientists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. He was among the first to deal systematically with the contribution that the history and philosophy of science can make to science education. His teaching was the occasion to unite pedagogical, psychological, philosophical and scientific concerns. His ideas on education are scattered throughout his books, textbooks and journal articles. However, there are three lectures where he explicitly addressed pedagogical issues. – ‘On Instruction in the Classics and the Mathematico-Physical Sciences’ (Mach, On instruction in the classics and the sciences. In his Popular scientific lectures. Open Court Publishing Company, La Salle, pp 338–374, 1886/1986), ‘On Instruction in Heat Theory’, and ‘On the Psychological and Logical Moment in Scientific Instruction’ (1890). As well as intellectual and practical interests in education, Mach had a notable Enlightenment-inspired political involvement in educational reform. Mach’s relative neglect by English-speaking science educators is unfortunate.

References

  1. Arons, A.B.: 1988, ‘Historical and Philosophical Perspectives Attainable in Introductory Physics Courses’, Educational Philosophy and Theory 20(2), 13–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Assis, A.K.T. & Zylbersztajn, A.: 2010, ‘The Influence of Ernst Mach in the Teaching of Mechanics’, Science & Education 10(1), 137–144.Google Scholar
  3. Bantock, G.H.: 1981, ‘The Idea of a Liberal Education’. In his The Parochialism of the Present, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, pp.65–79.Google Scholar
  4. Blackmore, J.T., Itagaki, R. & Tanaka, S. (eds.): 2001a, Ernst Mach’s Vienna 1895–1930, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  5. Blackmore, J.T., Itagaki, R. & Tanaka, S.: 2001b, ‘Alois Höfler: Polymath’. In Blackmore, J.T., Itagaki, R. & Tanaka, S. (eds.), Ernst Mach’s Vienna 1895–1930, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp.237–276.Google Scholar
  6. Blackmore, J.T.: 1972, Ernst Mach: His Work, Life and Influence, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  7. Blüh, O. & Elder, J.: 1955, Principles and Applications of Physics, Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  8. Bradley, J.: 1936, ‘Atomism and School Certificate Chemistry’, School Science Review 18, 20–27.Google Scholar
  9. Bradley, J.: 1964, ‘Chemistry II: The Copper Problem’, School Science Review 45, 364–368.Google Scholar
  10. Bradley, J.: 1971, Mach’s Philosophy of Science, London.Google Scholar
  11. Conant, J.B.: 1947, On Understanding Science, Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  12. d’Espagnat, B.: 2006, On Physics and Philosophy, Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  13. Duhem, P.: 1906/1954, The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory, trans. P.P. Wiener, Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  14. Einstein, A.: 1916/1992, ‘Ernst Mach’, Physikalische Zeitschrift, 17/7, 1st of April, 101–104. In J. Blackmore (ed.) Ernst Mach: A Deeper Look, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp.154–159.Google Scholar
  15. Erduran, S. & Dagher, Z.R.: 2014, Reconceptualizing the Nature of Science for Science Education, Springer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  16. Frank, P.: 1950a, Modern Science and Its Philosophy, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  17. Frank, P.: 1950b, ‘Introduction: Historical Background’. In his Modern Science and Its Philosophy, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA., pp.1–52.Google Scholar
  18. Frank, P.: 1950c, ‘Science Teaching and the Humanities’. In his Modern Science and Its Philosophy, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA., pp.260–285.Google Scholar
  19. Frank, P.: 1962/2001, ‘Interviewed by Thomas Kuhn’. In J. Blackmore, R. Itagaki & S. Tanaka (eds.) Ernst Mach’s Vienna 1895–1930, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrech, pp.61–66.Google Scholar
  20. Goldstein, H.: 1950/1980, Classical Mechanics, Addison-Wesley, Reading.Google Scholar
  21. Hanson, N.R.: 1965, ‘Newton’s First Law: A Philosopher’s Door into Natural Philosophy’. In R.G. Colodny (ed.), Beyond the Edge of Certainty, Prentice Hall, Englewood-Cliffs, NJ, pp.6–28.Google Scholar
  22. Hodson, D.: 2014, ‘Nature of Science in the Science Curriculum: Origin, Development and Shifting Emphases’. In M.R. Matthews (ed.) International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching, Springer, Dordrecht, pp.911–970.Google Scholar
  23. Holton, G.: 1952/2001, Introduction to Concepts and Theories in Physical Science, Princeton University Press, Princeton. Second edition (revised with S.G. Brush) 1985, third edition Physics the Human Adventure 2001Google Scholar
  24. Huygens, C.: 1690/1945, Treatise on Light, translated and edited by S.P. Thompson, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  25. Kirby, W.C. & van der Wende, M.C. (eds.): 2016, Experiences in Liberal Arts and Science Education from America, Europe, and Asia, Palgrave-Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Koertge, N.: 1977, ‘Galileo and the Problem of Accidents’, Journal of the History of Ideas 38, 389–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kuehn, K.: 2014, A Student’s Guide Through the Great Physics Texts. Volume I1: Space, Time and Motion, Springer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  28. Kuehn, K.: 2015, A Student’s Guide Through the Great Physics Texts. Volume 1: The Heavens and The Earth, Springer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  29. Mach, E.: 1872/1911, The History and Root of the Principle of the Conservation of Energy, trans. P.E.B. Jourdain, Open Court Publishing Company, Chicago.Google Scholar
  30. Mach, E.: 1886, ‘On Instruction in the Classics and the Sciences’. In his Popular Scientific Lectures, Open Court Publishing Company, La Salle, pp.338–374.Google Scholar
  31. Mach, E.: 1890/2016, ‘Über das psychologische und logische Moment im naturawissenschaftlichen unterricht’, Zeitschrift für den physikalischen und chemischen Unterricht 4, 1–5. ‘About the Psychological and Logical Moment in Natural Science Teaching’ Hayo Siemsen (trans.) private correspondence.Google Scholar
  32. Mach, E.: 1893/1974, The Science of Mechanics, (6th edition), Open Court Publishing Company, LaSalle Il.Google Scholar
  33. Mach, E.: 1896/1976, ‘On Thought Experiments’. In his Knowledge and Error, Reidel, Dordrecht, pp.134–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mach, E.: 1900/1986, Principles of the Theory of Heat: Historically and Critically Elucidated, edited by B. McGuinness, D. Reidel, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  35. Mach, E.: 1903, Space and Geometry in The Light of Physiological, Psychological and Physical Inquiry, Open Court Publishing Company, La Salle, IL.Google Scholar
  36. Mach, E.: 1905/1976, Knowledge and Error, Reidel, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  37. Mach, E.: 1913/1992, ‘Ernst Mach’. In J. Blackmore (ed.) Ernst Mach: A Deeper Look, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp.17–28.Google Scholar
  38. Mach, E.: 1926/1953, The Principles of Physical Optics. An Historical Philosophical Treatment, (J.S. Anderson & A.F.A. Young trans.), Dover Publications, New York. [German manuscript 1913]Google Scholar
  39. Manuel, D.E.: 1981 ‘Reflections on the role of History and Philosophy of Science in School Science Education’, School Science Review 62(221), 769–771.Google Scholar
  40. Martin, L.C.: 1926/1992, ‘Review of Mach’s Optics’. In J. Blackmore (ed.) Ernst Mach: A Deeper Look. Documents and New Perspectives, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp.69–70.Google Scholar
  41. Matthews, M.R. (ed.): 1989, The Scientific Background to Modern Philosophy, Hackett Publishing Company, Indianapolis.Google Scholar
  42. Matthews, M.R. (ed.): 2014, International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching, 3 volumes, Springer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  43. Matthews, M.R.: 1998, ‘In Defense of Modest Goals for Teaching About the Nature of Science’, Journal of Research in Science Teaching 35(2), 161–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Matthews, M.R.: 2004, ‘Reappraising Positivism and Education: The Arguments of Philipp Frank and Herbert Feigl’, Science & Education 13(1–2), 7–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Matthews, M.R.: 2011, ‘From Nature of Science (NOS) to Features of Science (FOS)’. In M.S. Khine (ed.) Advances inthe Nature of Science Research: Concepts and Methodologies, Springer, Dordrecht, pp.1–26.Google Scholar
  46. Matthews, M.R.: 2015, Science Teaching: The Contribution of History and Philosophy of Science, Second Updated Edition, Routledge, New York.Google Scholar
  47. McMullin, E.: 1985, ‘Galilean Idealization’, Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 16, 347–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Newton, I.: 1730/1979, Opticks or A Treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, Inflections & Colours of Light, Dover Publications, New York.Google Scholar
  49. (NRC) National Research Council: 2013, Next Generation Science Standards, National Academies Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  50. Peters, R.S.: 1966, Ethics and Education, George Allen and Unwin, London.Google Scholar
  51. Roth, M-W. & Roychoudhury, A.: 1994, ‘Physics Students’ Epistemologies and Views about Knowing and Learning’, Journal of Research in Science Teaching 31(1), 5–30.Google Scholar
  52. Scheffler, I.: 1973, ‘Philosophy and the Curriculum’. In his Reason and Teaching, Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis, IN, pp.31–41.Google Scholar
  53. Schilpp, P.A. (ed.): 1951, Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist, second edition, Tudor, New York.Google Scholar
  54. Schwab, J.J.: 1949/1978, ‘The Nature of Scientific Knowledge as Related to Liberal Education’, Journal of General Education 3, 245–266. Reproduced in I. Westbury & N.J. Wilkof (eds.) Joseph J. Schwab: Science, Curriclum, and Liberal Education, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1978, pp.68–104.Google Scholar
  55. Schwab, J.J.: 1950/1978, ‘The Natural Sciences: The Three Year Programme’. In University of Chicago Faculty, The Idea and Practice of General Education, University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Reproduced in I. Westbury & N.J. Wilkof (eds.) Joseph J. Schwab: Science, Curriculum, and Liberal Education, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1978, pp.43–67.Google Scholar
  56. Siemsen, H.: 2014, ‘Ernst Mach: A Genetic Introduction to His Educational Theory and Pedagogy’. In M.R. Matthews (ed.) International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching, Springer, Dordrecht, pp.2329–2357.Google Scholar
  57. Stadler, F.: 2001, The Vienna Circle:Studies in the Origins, Development, and Influence of Logical Empiricism, Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  58. Trusted, J.: 1991, Physics and Metaphysics: Theories of Space and Time, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  59. Wartofsky, M.W.: 1968, Conceptual Foundations of Scientific Thought: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science, Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  60. Weinert, F.: 2005, The Scientist as Philosopher: Philosophical Consequences of Great Scientific Discoveries, Springer, Berlin.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EducationUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations