The Scientific World-Conception in the Making: Towards the Ideological Roots of Logical Empiricism in Berlin and in Vienna
The essay examines the ideas and organizations of ‘late enlightenment’ in both European centers of interwar Logical Empiricism, Berlin and Vienna. It aims to demonstrate that secular, laically and (partly) anti-clerical movements such as the Monists, the Freethinkers and other groups promoting non-religious ethics anticipated and, in part, conceptualized the idea of a scientific world conception. The scientific-world conception, however, was not a purely scientific enterprise. Rather, it continued the historical tradition of a socially liberal enlightened reform project, whose political manifestations ranged from decidedly Marxist to a social-oriented, liberal-bourgeois spectrum.