Sustainable Shipping pp 339-374 | Cite as

# Speed Optimization for Sustainable Shipping

## Abstract

Among the spectrum of logistics – based measures for sustainable shipping – this chapter focuses on speed optimization. This involves the selection of an appropriate speed by the vessel, so as to optimize a certain objective. As ship speed is not fixed, depressed shipping markets and/or high fuel prices induce slow steaming which is being practiced in many sectors of the shipping industry. In recent years the environmental dimension of slow steaming has also become important, as ship emissions are directly proportional to fuel burned. Win-win solutions are sought, but they will not necessarily be possible. The chapter presents some basics, discusses the main trade-offs and also examines combined speed and route optimization problems. Some examples are presented so as to highlight the main issues that are at play, and the regulatory dimension of speed reduction via speed limits is also discussed.

## Abbreviations

- AIS
Automatic identification system

- BRI
Belt and Road Initiative

- CBO
(US) Congressional Budget Office

- CIF
Cost insurance freight

- CO
_{2} Carbon dioxide

- CSC
Clean Shipping Coalition

- DWT
Deadweight ton

- EEDI
Energy Efficiency Design Index

- ECA
Emissions Control Area

- FMC
(US) Federal Maritime Commission

- GHG
Greenhouse gas

- HFO
Heavy fuel oil

- IMO
International Maritime Organization

- MBM
Market-based measure

- MEPC
Marine Environment Protection Committee

- MSC
Mediterranean Shipping Company

- NGO
Nongovernmental organization

- Ro/Ro
Roll on/Roll off

- Ro/Pax
Ro/Ro passenger

- SECA
Sulfur emissions control area

- SO
_{x} Sulfur oxides

- TEU
Twenty-foot equivalent unit

- USD
United States dollar

- VLCC
Very large crude carrier

- VSRP
Vessel speed reduction programme

- WS
World scale (index)

## Notes

### Acknowledgments

Work reported in this chapter was funded in part by various sources. Early work was supported in part by the Lloyd’s Register Foundation (LRF) in the context of the Centre of Excellence in Ship Total Energy-Emissions-Economy at the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), the author’s former affiliation. Later sources include an internal grant by the President of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and an internal grant at the DTU Department of Management Engineering, Management Science Division; the BlueSIROS project at DTU, funded by the European Space Agency (DTU Space leader); and the ShipCLEAN project at DTU, funded by the Swedish Energy Agency (Chalmers University project leader). Three recent DTU MSc theses, by Juan Morales, Massimo Giovannini and Fabio Vilas, have also contributed to the chapter (in Sects. 4.2, 5, and 6, respectively).

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