A Novel Paper-Based Biosensor for Urinary Phenylalanine Measurement for PKU Therapy Monitoring

  • Maria Anna MessinaEmail author
  • Federica Raudino
  • Agata Fiumara
  • Sabrina Conoci
  • Salvatore PetraliaEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 539)


A novel paper-based biosensors for the measurement of urinary phenylalanine (Phe) was developed and the experimental results here reported. The proposed biosensor is featured by a silicon part integrating temperature sensors and heaters and a polycarbonate ring to form a microchamber. The reagent-on-board format allows a fast and easy self-testing directly from patients. The biosensors is thermally driven by a customized instrument and software. The detection strategy employed is based on the specific reaction of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase enzyme to produce ammonia and trans-cinnamic acid from Phenylalanine. The increase of pH value is proportional to the Phe amount and can be monitored by the color changes of a dye solution. The proposed system is suitable to detect the phenylalanine levels in a linear dynamic range concentration from 20 to 3000 μM.


Biosensors Phenylalanine Phenylketonuria 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Policlinico Vittorio EmanueleCataniaItaly
  2. 2.STMicroelectronicsCataniaItaly

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