This chapter explores the case of Africa. The chapter begins with an examination of the concept of the poverty trap, which seeks to explain why some countries are stuck in a vicious cycle of poverty. The chapter then turns to the issue of corruption, concentrating on some of the major trends in corruption. Next, it explores the evolution of drug trafficking and organized crime in Africa, focusing particularly on West Africa. It then analyzes terrorist organizations operating in Africa, such as Boko Haram and their impact on regional security. Finally, the chapter examines the issue of foreign aid, contending that it has not helped Africa solve many of the underlying structural issues.