Gender Differences in Parkinson’s Disease

  • Michael T. HayesEmail author


Parkinson’s disease, a degenerative neurologic condition, manifests itself differently in women than in men. Women are less likely to develop the disease and, when they do develop it, have a later onset than men. This chapter looks at a number of factors that may impact how the disease affects women differently than men including how genetic and hormonal differences may play a role. The expression of the disease, both motor and nonmotor symptoms, tends to be different in men and women also and treatment may be impacted by these differences. Finally, the data regarding pregnancy in Parkinson’s disease patients is reviewed.


Parkinson’s Gender differences Cognition Degenerative disease Pregnancy 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.South Shore HospitalWeymouthUSA
  3. 3.Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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