Advertisement

Student Disengagement in Inclusive Icelandic Education: A Question of School Effect in Reykjavík

  • Kristjana Stella BlondalEmail author
  • Jón Torfi Jónasson
  • Atli Hafthórsson
Chapter
Part of the International Study of City Youth Education book series (SCYE, volume 2)

Abstract

In this chapter we investigate school effects on student disengagement as expressed by school misconduct among students in the last year of compulsory education in the capital area of Reykjavík in Iceland. We build on an input-process-output model. Multilevel analysis was used on the Icelandic data gathered in 2014–2015 (1996 students in 10th grade, age 15 in 44 schools) as a part of the ISCY study. We examine how the input variables socioeconomic status, both at school and individual level, affect students’ behavior disengagement, also in light of gender, and if these effects are mediated through the three process variables: students’ academic self-efficacy, their perception of value of education, and their relationship with their teachers. Results showed that school effect and socioeconomical composition of school predicted behavioral disengagement among boys and these effects where independent of individual-level objective and subjective SES and the process variables. Results for girls where different, as after controlling for individual-level objective and subjective SES, effects of school and SES composition of school were nonsignificant. The process variables all significantly predicted behavioral engagement for both boys and girls. The results call for further exploration of the gender effect and the school effect for the boys.

Keywords

SES composition Academic self-efficacy Teacher-student relationships Gender School misconduct Student engagement 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The ongoing longitudinal research project reported in this study was supported by a grant no. 184730-051 from the Icelandic Research Fund. In addition, this part of the study was supported by a grant from the Research Foundation of the University of Iceland. The young people, parents, teachers, and principals who kindly consented to participate in this project are gratefully thanked.

References

  1. Alexander, K. L., Entwisle, D. R., & Horsey, C. S. (1997). From first grade forward: Early foundations of high school dropout. Sociology of Education, 70, 87–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  3. Bjarnason, Th., Hjálmsdóttir, A., & Arnarsson, Á. M. (2010). Heilsa og lífskjör skólanema á höfuðborgarsvæðinu 2006–2010. [Health and living conditions in school-aged children living in the capital area in Iceland 2006–2010.]. Akureyri, Iceland: Rannsóknasetur forvarna við Háskólann á Akureyri.Google Scholar
  4. Blondal, K. S. (2014). Student disengagement and school dropout: Parenting practices as context (A thesis for a Ph.D.-degree in Education Studies). Retrieved from http://skemman.is/handle/1946/19426
  5. Blondal, K. S., & Adalbjarnardottir, S. A. (2012). Student disengagement in relation to expected and unexpected educational pathways. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 56, 85–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blondal, K. S., & Adalbjarnardottir, S. A. (2014). Parenting in relation to school dropout through student engagement: A longitudinal study. Journal of Marriage and Family, 76, 778–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blondal, K. S., Jónasson, J. T., & Sigvaldadóttir, S. (2016). Sérkenni námsferils starfsnámsnemenda í framhaldsskóla. Afstaða og skuldbinding til náms, líðan og stuðningur foreldra og skóla. [Characteristic of VET students in upper secondary school: Educational trajectories, engagement and school and parental support.]. Reykjavík, Iceland: Menntavísindastofnun, Menntavísindasviði Háskóla Íslands. Retrieved from http://menntavisindastofnun.hi.is/sites/menntavisindastofnun.hi.is/files/serkenni_starfsnams.pdf
  8. Blondal, K. S., Jónasson, J. T., & Tannhäuser, A.-C. (2011). Dropout in a small society: Is the Icelandic case somehow different? In S. Lamb, E. Markussen, R. Teese, N. Sandberg, & J. Polesel (Eds.), School dropout and completion: International comparative studies in theory and policy (pp. 233–251). London: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brewster, A. B., & Bowen, G. L. (2004). Teacher support and the school engagement of Latino middle and high school students at risk of school failure. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 21, 47–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Demanet, J., Van den Broeck, L., & Van Houtte, M. (2015). Schoolmoeheid door economische deprivatie? [Disengagement by economic deprivation?]. In D. Dierckx, J. Coene, P. Raeymaeckers, & M. van der Burg (Eds.), Armoede en Sociale Uitsluiting. Jaarboek 2015 (pp. 214–230). Leuven, Belgium: Acco.Google Scholar
  11. Demanet, J., & Van Houtte, M. (2012). School belonging and school misconduct: The differing role of teachers and peer attachment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(4), 499–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Demanet, J., & Van Houtte, M. (2014). Social-ethnic school composition and disengagement: An inquiry into the perceived control explanation. The Social Science Journal, 51, 659–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Demanet, J., Vanderwegen, P., Vermeersch, H., & Van Houtte, M. (2013). Unravelling gender composition effects on rule-breaking at school: A focus on study attitudes. Gender and Education, 25(4), 466–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dishion, T. J., & Tipsord, J. M. (2011). Peer contagion in child and adolescent social and emotional development. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 189–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education. (2017). Education for all in Iceland. External audit of the Icelandic system for inclusive education. Odense, Denmark: European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education.Google Scholar
  16. Finn, J. D. (1989). Withdrawing from school. Review of Educational Research, 59, 117–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Finn, J. D. (1993). School engagement and students at risk. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  18. Finn, J. D., & Rock, D. A. (1997). Academic success among students at risk for school failure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 221–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74, 59–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Guttormsson, L. (Ed.). (2008). Almenningsfræðsla á Íslandi 1880–2007. [History of general education in Iceland, 1880–2007.]. Reykjavík, Iceland: University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkley, MI: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  22. Jackson, C. (2002). ‘Laddishness’ as a self-worth protection strategy. Gender and Education, 14, 37–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jenkins, P. H. (1995). School delinquency and school commitment. Sociology of Education, 68(3), 221–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jónasson, J. T. (1999). The predictability of educational expansion: Examples from secondary and higher education. In I. Fägerlind, I. Holmesland, & G. Strömqvist (Eds.), Higher education at the crossroads. Tradition or transformation? (pp. 113–131). Stockholm, Sweden: Institute of International Education. Stockholm University.Google Scholar
  25. Jónasson, J. T. (2003). Does the state expand schooling? A study based on five Nordic countries. Comparative Education Review, 47(2), 160–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jónasson, J. T., & Tuijnman, A. (2001). Nordic adult education compared: Findings and interpretation. Golden Riches. Nordic Adult Learning, 2001(2), 6–11.Google Scholar
  27. Lamb, S., Jackson, J., & Rumberger, R. (2015). ISCY technical paper: Measuring 21st century skills in ISCY. Technical report. Victoria University, Centre for International Research on Educational Systems, Melbourne, Victoria. http://vuir.vu.edu.au/31682
  28. Linnenbrink, E. A., & Pintrich, P. R. (2003). The role of self-efficacy, beliefs in student engagement and learning in the classroom. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 19, 119–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Luke, D. A. (2004). Multilevel modeling (Vol. 143). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Martin, A. J. (2004). School motivation of boys and girls: Difference of degree, difference of kind, or both? Australian Journal of Psychology, 56, 133–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Merton, R. K. (1968). Social theory and social structure. Glencoe, MN: Free Press.Google Scholar
  32. Monahan, K. C., Steinberg, L., & Cauffman, E. (2009). Affiliation with antisocial peers, susceptibility to peer influence, and antisocial behavior during the transition to adulthood. Developmental Psychology, 45(6), 1520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Murdock, T. B. (1999). The social context of risk: Status and motivational predictors of alienation in middle school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 62–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Newmann, F., Wehlage, G. G., & Lamborn, S. D. (1992). The significance and sources of student engagement). In F. Newmann (Ed.), Student engagement and achievement in American secondary schools (pp. 11–39). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  35. Ólafsson, R. (2014). TALIS 2013. Starfsaðstæður, viðhorf og kennsluhættir kennara og skólastjórnenda á Íslandi í alþjóðlegum samanburið. Teaching and learning international Survey. Alþjoðleg samanburðarrannsókn unnin í samvinnu við OECD fyrir mennta og menningarmálaráðuneytið. Reykjavík, Iceland: Námsmatsstofnun.Google Scholar
  36. Peguero, A. A., & Shaffer, K. A. (2015). Academic self-efficacy, dropping out, and the significance of inequality. Sociological Spectrum, 35, 46–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rabe-Hesketh, S., & Skrondal, A. (2008). Multilevel and longitudinal modeling using Stata. College Station, TX: STATA Press.Google Scholar
  38. Rumberger, R. W. (1995). Dropping out of middle school: A multilevel analysis of students and schools. American Educational Research Journal, 32, 583–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rumberger, R. W. (2011). Dropping out: Why students drop out of high school and what can be done about it. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Educational Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Samband íslenskra sveitarfélaga. (2012). Sameiginleg könnun Sambans íslenskra sveitarfélaga og Félag grunnskólakennara. [Study of Icelandic Association of Local Authorities and The Icelandic Teachers’ Union]. Retrieved from https://ssh.is/images/stories/Soknaraaetlun/Kynning_nidurstadna_konnunar_FG_og_samb_loka_2012_08.pdf
  41. Sigthorsson, R., Pétursdóttir, A.-L., & Jónsdóttir, T. B. (2014). Nám, þátttaka og samskipti nemenda. [Learning, participation and interaction among students]. In G. G. Óskarsdóttir (Ed.), Starfshættir í grunnskólum við upphaf 21. aldar (pp. 161–196). Reykjavík, Iceland: Háskólaútgáfan.Google Scholar
  42. Sigurgeirsson, I., & Kaldalóns, I. (2006). “Gullkista við enda regnbogans”. Rannsókn á hegðunarvanda í grunnskólum Reykjavíkur skólaárið 2005–2006. [Research on school misconduct and behavioral disorder in Reykjavík compulsory schools in the school year 2005–2006]. Reykjavík, Iceland: Rannsóknarstofnun Kennaraháskóla Íslands.Google Scholar
  43. Statistics Iceland. (n.d.a.). Private, public and special compulsory schools 1998–2015. Retrieved from http://www.statice.is/statistics/society/education/compulsory-schools/
  44. Statistics Iceland. (n.d.b.). Pupils receiving special education or support 2004–2015. Retrieved from http://www.statice.is/statistics/society/education/compulsory-schools/
  45. Statistics Iceland. (n.d.c.). Population by municipality, age and sex 1998–2015 – Division into municipalites as of 1 January 2015. Retrieved from http://www.statice.is/statistics/population/inhabitants/municipalities-and-urban-nuclei/
  46. The Icelandic National Curriculum Guide for Compulsory Schools: General Section 2011. (2011). Retrieved from https://www.stjornarradid.is/default.aspx?PageID=47080c0c-c37e-11e6-9409-005056bc4d74
  47. Tinto, V. (1975). Dropout from higher education: A theoretical synthesis of recent research. Review of Educational Research, 45(1), 89–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Van Houtte, M. (2004). Why boys achieve less at school than girls: The difference between boys’ and girls’ academic culture. Educational Studies, 30(2), 159–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Van Ryzin, M. J., Gravely, A. A., & Roseth, C. J. (2009). Autonomy, belongingness, and engagement in school as contributors to adolescent psychological well-being. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Vantieghem, W., Vermeersch, H., & Van Houtte, M. (2014). Why “gender” disappeared from the gender gap: (re-)introducing gender identity theory to educational gender gap research. Social Psychology of Education, 17(3), 357–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wang, M. T., & Eccles, J. S. (2012). Social support matters: Longitudinal effects of social support on three dimensions of school engagement from middle to high school. Child Development, 83, 877–895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wehlage, G. G., Rutter, R. A., Smith, G. A., Lesko, N., & Fernandez, R. R. (1989). Reducing the risk: Schools as communities of support. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristjana Stella Blondal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jón Torfi Jónasson
    • 2
  • Atli Hafthórsson
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Social Sciences GimliUniversity of IcelandReykjavíkIceland
  2. 2.School of EducationUniversity of IcelandReykjavíkIceland

Personalised recommendations