Cardiorenal Syndrome in Heart Failure Patients: ICU Management

  • Andrew Kowalski
  • Jonathan D. RichEmail author
Part of the Difficult Decisions in Surgery: An Evidence-Based Approach book series (DDSURGERY)


Cardiorenal syndrome is a condition manifest by the complex interplay and bidirectional injury that occurs to the cardiovascular and renal systems, respectively. Etiologies of the cardiorenal syndrome may be wide ranging but most commonly implicate impairment in the cardiovascular system leading to a vicious cycle of worsening cardiac and renal function. Treatment and management principles of this condition are complicated, sometimes misunderstood, and fraught with empiricism and the need to extrapolate data from similar but sufficiently diverse conditions and studies to this syndrome. This chapter seeks to elucidate the definitions, mechanisms, and treatment approaches to the heart failure patient with the cardiorenal syndrome in the intensive care unit.


Cardiorenal syndrome Management Intensive care Acute decompensated heart failure Renal failure Acute kidney injury Volume overload Ultrafiltration Diuretics Inotropes 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Division of NephrologyNorthwestern University Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Medicine, Division of CardiologyNorthwestern University Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA

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