Redefinitions: Race and Rurality
Second-generation Anglo-Caribbean writers, who have often grown up in the metropolis, often show less ambivalence to the English and Welsh countryside environments in their accounts and instead write them from a viewpoint that is less colonially refracted than that of their predecessors. This chapter looks at contemporary accounts by Andrea Levy, Caryl Phillips, and Charlotte Williams. Levy and Phillips’s characters negotiate a difficult relationship with the countryside because of their urban backgrounds, for example by using urban or city terminology to describe rural or country scenes. Both Levy’s and Phillips’s protagonists remain at the margins, continuing to struggle to fit into English countryside village life. However, Williams’s experiences growing up in rural North Wales coupled with her deep connections to both the Caribbean and to her mother’s “Welshness” have allowed her to see and reimagine Wales in vivid and colourful ways.