Paths to Alternative and Supplemental Water Supplies
This chapter looks at examples of the successes and failures of nations in their efforts to achieve a sustainable supply of clean, safe water. The examples chosen are experiencing high to extreme water stress in the face of natural and human-caused barriers to achieving water sustainability. Supply gaps examined include Russia, China, India and Jordan. Present and future water crises exist in many other parts of the world as well.
KeywordsWater scarcity Water stress Water risk Water sustainability
- Biswas, Asit K., Cecilia Tortajada, and Udisha Saklan. 2017. India is facing the worst water crisis in generations. Quartz India. Accessed December 13, 2017 from http://qz.com/931878/india-is-facing-the-worst-water-crisis-in-generations.
- FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 2012. China: Geography, climate and population: Water report. Aquastat, Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN. Accessed December 9, 2017 from www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries_regions/CHN/.
- FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 2016. Russian Federation: Geography, climate and population. Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, Aquastat. Accessed January 22, 2018 from www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries_regions/RUS/print1.stm.
- Grimaldos, Angel Simón. 2015. Water for a sustainable future: New paradigm, new vision. In Water and Sustainable Development, ed. Ramiro A. Lopera, 68–73. United Nations Water for Life. Accessed December 7, 2017 from www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/pdf/wm-iii-eng.pdf.
- Luthra, Sonia, and Amrita Kundu. 2013. India’s water crisis and cures: An Interview with Kirit S. Parikha. The National Bureau of Asian Research (NBR). Accessed June 28, 2018 from http://www.nbr.org/research/activity.aspx?id=356.
- McKinsey & Co. 2009. Charting our water future. 2030 Water Resources Group. Sustainability & Resource Productivity 18 (1): 1–18. Accessed December 15, 2017 from www.mckinsey.com/~/media/mckinsey/dotcom/client_service/sustainability/pdfs/charting%20our%20water%20future/charting_our_water_future_full_report_.ashx.
- Pacific Institute. 2014. Defining water scarcity, water stress and water risk: It’s not just semantics. Pacific Instituter Insights, February 4. Accessed June 30, 2018 from http://pacinst.org/water-definitions/.
- Shevchuk, Anatoly. 2013. Water resource management, water ecosystem problems. In Sustainable Development in Russia, ed. Sergei Bobylev and Renat Perelet, 144–153. Berlin: Russian-German Exchange.Google Scholar
- Snyder, Shannyn. 2017. Water in crisis: India. The Water Project. Concord, New Hampshire. Accessed December 9, 2017 from https://thewaterproject.org/water-crisis/water-in-crisis-India.
- USAID (United States Agency for International Development). 2017. Water and wastewater project. Accessed November 23, 2017 from www.usaid.gov/jordan/fact-sheets/water-and-wastewater-infrastructure-project.
- Wang, Jiao, Linjun Zhong, and Charles Iceland. 2017. China’s water stress in on the rise. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. Accessed December 8, 2017 from www.wri.org/blog/2017/01/chinas-water-stress-rise.